Maunder Minimum

Spread the love

What is the Maunder Minimum?

The most famous grand solar minimum of all is undoubtedly the Maunder Minimum, which endured from approximately 1645 until 1720. It was named after Edward Maunder, a nineteenth-century astronomer who painstakingly reconstructed European sunspot observations. The Maunder Minimum has become synonymous with the Little Ice Age, a period of climatic cooling that, according to some definitions, endured from around 1300 to 1850, but reached its chilliest point in the seventeenth century.

Temperatures plummeted in Europe. The growing season became shorter by more than a month, the number of snowy days increased from a few to 20–30, the ground froze to several feet, alpine glaciers advanced all over the world, glaciers in the Swiss Alps encroached on farms and buried villages, tree-lines in the Alps dropped, sea ports were blocked by sea ice that surrounded Iceland and Holland for about 20 miles, wine grape harvests diminished, and cereal grain harvests failed, leading to mass famines (Fagan, 2007).

The Thames River and canals and rivers of the Netherlands froze over during the winter. The population of Iceland decreased by about half. In parts of China, warm-weather crops that had been grown for centuries were abandoned. In North America, early European settlers experienced exceptionally severe winters.

Climate during Maunder Minimum

CHILLY TEMPERATURES DURING THE MAUNDER MINIMUM

Many things can change temperatures on Earth: a volcano erupts, swathing the Earth with bright haze that blocks sunlight, and temperatures drop. From 1650 to 1710, temperatures across much of the Northern Hemisphere plunged when the Sun entered a quiet phase now called the Maunder Minimum.  During this period, very few sunspots appeared on the surface of the Sun, and the overall brightness of the Sun decreased slightly.

Already in the midst of a colder-than-average period called the Little Ice Age, Europe and North America went into a deep freeze: alpine glaciers extended over valley farmland; sea ice crept south from the Arctic; and the famous canals in the Netherlands froze regularly—an event that is rare today.

 

 

The impact of the solar minimum is clear in this image, which shows the temperature difference between 1680, a year at the center of the Maunder Minimum, and 1780, a year of normal solar activity, as calculated by a general circulation model. Deep blue across eastern and central North America and northern Eurasia illustrates where the drop in temperature was the greatest. Nearly all other land areas were also cooler in 1680, as indicated by the varying shades of blue. The few regions that appear to have been warmer in 1680 are Alaska and the eastern Pacific Ocean (left), the North Atlantic Ocean south of Greenland (left of center), and north of Iceland (top center).

If energy from the Sun decreased only slightly, why did temperatures drop so severely in the Northern Hemisphere? Climate scientist Drew Shindell and colleagues at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies tackled that question by combining temperature records gleaned from tree rings, ice cores, corals, and the few measurements recorded in the historical record, with an advanced computer model of the Earth’s climate. The group first calculated the amount of energy coming from the Sun during the Maunder Minimum and entered the information into a general circulation model. The model is a mathematical representation of the way various Earth systems—ocean surface temperatures, different layers of the atmosphere, energy reflected and absorbed from land, and so forth—interact to produce the climate.

When the model started with the decreased solar energy and returned temperatures that matched the paleoclimate record, Shindell and his colleagues knew that the model was showing how the Maunder Minimum could have caused the extreme drop in temperatures. The model showed that the drop in temperature was related to ozone in the stratosphere, the layer of the atmosphere that is between 10 and 50 kilometers from the Earth’s surface. Ozone is created when high-energy ultraviolet light from the Sun interacts with oxygen. During the Maunder Minimum, the Sun emitted less strong ultraviolet light, and so less ozone formed. The decrease in ozone affected planetary waves, the giant wiggles in the jet stream that we are used to seeing on television weather reports.

 

The change to the planetary waves kicked the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—the balance between a permanent low-pressure system near Greenland and a permanent high-pressure system to its south—into a negative phase. When the NAO is negative, both pressure systems are relatively weak. Under these conditions, winter storms crossing the Atlantic generally head eastward toward Europe, which experiences a more severe winter. (When the NAO is positive, winter storms track farther north, making winters in Europe milder.) The model results, shown above, illustrate that the NAO was more negative on average during the Maunder Minimum, and Europe remained unusually cold. These results matched the paleoclimate record.

By creating a model that could reproduce temperatures recorded in paleoclimate records, Shindell and colleagues reached a better understanding of how changes in the stratosphere influence weather patterns. With such an understanding, scientists are better poised to understand what factors could influence Earth’s climate in the future.

Excerpts from

A Chronological Listing of Early Weather Events:

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER EVENTS DURING THIS TIME:

  • The severe winter in the Upper Midwest of the United States during the last Little Ice Age.

    Refer to the winters of 1680/1681

  •  The “Great Storm” that had the intensity of a major Category 2 hurricane which struck England in November 1703.
  • The severe winter of 1683/1684 when the English Channel froze.
  • The Atlantic hurricanes of 1666, 1680, 1689, 1694, 1715
  • Typhoons/Cyclones that struck
    • —  Bangladesh in  1699
  • Severe European winters of
    • 1657/1658, 1669/1670, 1680/1681, 1683/1684, 1691/1692, 1708/1709
  • Chinese winters of
    • 1627/1628, 1655, 1691
  • Severe North American winters of
    • 1696, 1697
  • When the Nile River froze: 1691/1692.

1645 A.D.

During the winter of 1645, there was a furious wind that struck near Geneva, Switzerland. It took the roof off a house and laid dry the bed of the River Rhone above the bridge in view of the town. Many people crossed over the dry river to the little island with dry feet. One of the sons of Mr.D’aubigny picked up some medals he found in the dry riverbed along his way. The river was dry for an hour and then the waters returned. A book printed in the year 1560 recorded a similar episode. 234

In 1645, the plague was very violent in Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. 1,325 persons died between 12 March and 1 June. “The air very warm and so infectious that dogs, cats, mice, and rats died, and several birds in their flight over the town dropped dead.” 212

[In England] March 8, September 4 great rains and floods, a rainy flood filled winter.72
On 6 June 1645, a hailstorm struck Loughborough in Leicestershire, England. Some of the hailstones

were as big as small hens’ eggs and the least as big as musket bullets.194 In England on the 3rd of July, there was a hailstorm with rain.57, 72

In France there was a flood. On 11 July 1645, the Seine River in Paris, France, at the bridge “Pont de la Tournelle” reached a height of 9.04 meters (29.7 feet) above the zero mark [the low water mark of the year 1719].71

In England, the summer was excessively hot and dry.72
The summer of 1645 was short but hot in England. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest took place on 11

September; 13 days earlier than the mean.62

In England, there was a severe frost from the 8th of December to the 17th of January.47, 72, 93

In 1645 during the period between 26 April and 24 May, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at An-tz’ŭ. At Wan-tsai, the crops were damaged by the floodwaters. During the period between 21 August and 19 September, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ch’êng and Hopei province at Hsing-t’ai, Kao-yang [possibly a misprint], Tsao-ch’iang, Chêng-ting and Chi-tsê.153

In 1645 during the autumn in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a storm of great wind; the sea broke the dike, salted the land, and thereby destroyed the rice.166


1646 A.D.

In Friesland, Holland [now the Netherlands] and Zealand, Denmark, there were great inundations. The Sea drowned 110,000 people.47, 72, 92

The sea broke in at Derdrecht [Dordrecht] in Holland [now the Netherlands] and thereabout, and drowned 10,000 people. About Dullar in Friesland and Zealand, it drowned 100,000 people, and 300 villages, some of whose steeples and towers yet appear when the tide is out.72

In 1646, it was excessively hot [in England].212
In 1646, the plague ravaged Bideford in Devon, England. It also struck Bingham in Nottinghamshire where it raged violently.212
In 1646, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 48 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
[In England] on 26 June, there was a terrible storm of thunder and lightning with rain.72
In England, there were hailstorms on the 4th of May; 11th and 12th of July; and 17th of August.57, 72, 93

In 1646 during the period between 7 March and 8 October, a severe drought engulfed Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh and Mêng-shan; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Nan-ch’ang, P’ing-hsiang and Wan-tsai. During the same time period, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chin-hua, P’u-chiang, Taichow, Shao-hsing and Tung-yang.153

In 1646 during the period between 17 March and 15 April, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Fou-yang and Po. During the period between 13 June and 12 July, floods struck Yunnan province in southwest China at K’un-ming and Mêng-tzŭ; and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tzŭ-yang and Lin-i. At Tzŭ-yang, houses were damaged by the floodwaters. [Lin-i is located at longitude 118.24° East and latitude 35.07° North.] During the period between 11 August and 8 September, floods struck Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Kao-p’ing and Shantung province at Lin-tzŭ.153


1647 A.D.

In England, the weather was variable in 1647, but very rainy in 1648.72
[In England] form the harvest in 1647, both of the years [1647 & 1648] southerly windy, cold; all very rainy and floody.72

In England, “this was a most exceedingly wet year; neither frost nor snow all the winter for more than six days in all. Cattle died everywhere of a murrain [cattle disease].” 47

In 1647, the price of wheat was high [in England]; averaging 73 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1647, floods struck many regions of China including 153
— During the period between 5 May and 2 June, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai.
— During the period 2-31 July, floods struck Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Hsiao and Suchow; and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Wang-chiang, Wu-wei, Po, and Fou-yang.
— During the period 1-29 August, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Shui-an; Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ü-fou, I-shui, Kuang-jao, Wên-shang, Ch’ang-yüeh and An-ch’iu [it is possible the word order is inverted “Ch’iu-an”]. — During the period between 30 August and 27 September, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Mao-ming; Kiangsu province at Kao-yu; and Shantung province at Ning-yang.

In 1647 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at T’ung [uncertain name]. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at K’ai-hua.153


1648 A.D.

In 1648, the price of wheat was high [in England]; averaging 85 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

Over the 100-year period from 1646 to 1745, the highest true market price of wheat at Windsor, England occurred in the years 1648 and 1649. The true-market price was computed averaging the price on Lady Day and the price at Michaelmas. In 1648, the price was 4£ 5s per Quarter [Quarter ton]. In 1649, the price was 4£ per Quarter [Quarter ton]. [This high price denotes a scarcity.] Over this time period, malt exceeded 2£ per Quarter in 1648, 1649, 1659 and 1662.297

In 1648, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Wu-ho and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at P’ing-yüan and Wên-shang.
— During the period between 21 June and 19 July, floods struck Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Mi-yün, Hsien, Hsin-ho, Pai-hsiang and Pa; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Tzŭ-chin [uncertain name – Yung-an].
— During the period between 20 July and 18 August, floods struck Hopei province at Wu-ch’iang, Chin, P’ing-hsiang, Nan-ho, Yung-nien, Tsao-ch’iang, and Mi-yün; Anhwei province at Su-sung; and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chien-tê.
— During the period between 19 August and 16 September, floods struck Anhwei province at Po, Ying-shang and T’ai-p’ing; and Chekiang province at Ch’ang-shan.

In 1648 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Jao-p’ing.153

In 1648 during the 4th moon on the 3rd day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a hailstorm. The hailstones were the size of a [man’s] fist. The hailstones wounded cattle and damaged crops.166

In 1648 during the 7th moon on the 21st day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there were three tides in one day.166

In 1648 during the autumn, there was a flood in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166
Winter of 1648 / 1649 A.D. In England on 22nd January, ”Now was the Thames frozen over and horrid tempests frown’d.” 47, 93

There was a great frost in England in January 1649. The River Thames was frozen over in London. On 22 January, there was a horrid tempest of wind.212


1649 A.D.

In France there was a flood. In January 1649, the Seine River in Paris, France, at the bridge “Pont de la Tournelle” reached a height of 7.65 meters (25.1 feet) above the zero mark [the low water mark of the year 1719].71

In 1649, continuous rain swelled the River Seine in Paris, France. The waters shook the small bridge “Pont Saint-Michel.” In the living memory of the oldest bourgeois, they had not witnessed so great a rise of floodwaters in the Place de Grève [now called the Place de l’ Hôtel de Ville] and the surrounding streets. The floodwater even overran the cemetery of St. John.79

In England, there were very general floods.47, 92
[In England], on 17 January (at Oxfordshire) and 17 June, there were great floods. All September and

October rainy and floods.72

On 24 August 1649, there was a hailstorm at Peterborough in eastern England. Some of the hailstones were 9 inches in circumference.195

In 1649, the price of wheat was high [in England]; averaging 80 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

Over the 100-year period from 1646 to 1745, the highest true market price of wheat at Windsor, England occurred in the years 1648 and 1649. The true-market price was computed averaging the price on Lady Day and the price at Michaelmas. In 1648, the price was 4£ 5s per Quarter [Quarter ton]. In 1649, the price was 4£ per Quarter [Quarter ton]. [This high price denotes a scarcity.] Over this time period, malt exceeded 2£ per Quarter in 1648, 1649, 1659 and 1662.297

In 1649 there was a famine in Scotland and northern England. The plague raged in Ireland and Shropshire in west Midlands England.72

In 1649 and 1650, there was a famine in Scotland and the North of England from rains and wars.57, 72, 91 In 1649 in Lancashire, England, there was a famine caused by the ravages of the armies. A plague

followed.57

In 1649, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 11 May and 9 June, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Kiukiang and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chung-hsiang and Hanyang.
— During the period between 10 June and 9 July, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Fou-yang. Innumerable houses were damaged by the floodwaters.
— During the period between 8 August and 6 September, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Yen-ch’êng and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wên-an, Chêng-ting, Hsing-t’ai, Kuang-p’ing, Ta-ming and Ho-chien.

In 1649 during the period between 5 February and 8 August, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Chi-an.153


1650 A.D.

During the night of 18 January in England, there was a terrible storm. The cattle were so frightened that most of them broke out of the fields. Some in leaping broke their necks, others their legs. Some ran four miles off and when found were excessively hot.72

In Leicester, England on the 29th of April, there was a hailstorm.57, 93 . . . with thunder and lightning.72

In Rome, Italy, during the summer of 1650, the heat was very strong and extremely dry. [In France], this year was noted for a great scarcity of corn; the price was three times higher than in the previous five years.62

In Rome, Italy, during the whole year, there was most excessive heat and drought, especially in the summer. After the harvest, the scorching heat was succeeded by very great rains and these were followed by a most rigorous cold.72

In 1650, an Atlantic hurricane struck St. Kitts in the West Indies. Twenty-eight ships were thrown on the roadstead of St. Christopher island; the sailors drowned. During two different hurricanes, a total of twenty-eight merchantmen [merchant ships] were lost along with a great number of lives.141 [St. Christopher island is commonly known as St. Kitts. A roadstead is a place outside a harbor where a ship can lie at anchor.]

In 1650, the price of wheat was high [in England]; averaging 77 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 In 1650 and 1651 in Ireland, there was a famine throughout the country. Siege of Limerick in western

Ireland and Siege of Galway in west-central Ireland.57, 91

In 1650, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 1 February and 1 March, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Hanyang.
— During the period between 30 May and 28 June, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’i-ho, Chang-ch’ing, T’an-ch’êng [probably a misprint, “Yen-ch’êng”], and Jih-chao. Nearly all the villages in the region of Chang-ch’ing were flooded.
— During the period between 29 June and 27 July, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Ts’ang-wu; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Taichow, Sui-ch’ang and Hu-chou; and Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at An-k’ang.
— During the period between 8 August and 8 November, floods struck Shantung province at Tung-a, Tung-ming, Shih-p’ing [probably a misprint, “Jên-p’ing”], Ch’ang-i, Chiao, Ên, T’ang-i and Hui-min. At Tung-a, 67 villages were flooded. At Ch’ang-i, the crops were damaged by the floodwaters. Also during this time period, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Shih-ch’êng [uncertain name].
— During the period between 25 October and 22 November, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Fu-ning and Luan-ch’êng; and Chekiang province at Hsien-chü. At Hsien-chü, the city walls, fields and houses were damaged by the floodwaters and many people drowned.

In 1650 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Wan-ch’üan. During the period between 1 April 1650 and 18 May 1651, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Yai.153


1651 A.D.

In France there was a flood. In January 1651, the Seine River in Paris, France, at the bridge “Pont de la Tournelle” reached a height of 7.8 meters (25.6 feet) above the zero mark [the low water mark of the year 1719].71

On 23 February 1651 occurred St. Peter’s high flood, whereby much damage was done to the dikes in Friesland [now in the Netherlands], Embderland, and elsewhere, and not far from Dockum [Dokkum in the Netherlands] by Oudt-woudumer-ziil, there was a breach of 42 roods [42 rods, 693 feet, 211 meters] long broken in the dike.225

[In England] on 22 August, there was a terrible storms of thunder and lightning.72
In Dorchester in southwestern England on the 23rd of August, there was a hailstorm with stones 7 inches

in circumference.41, 43, 56, 57, 93
In England in 1651, it was very hot days at the time of harvest. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began

on 22 September. This was another year in France where wheat was very scarce.62
In England, the years 1651-54 produced scorching hot dry summers and dry years.47, 72
In 1651, the price of wheat was high [in England]; averaging 73 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 Thunderstorms or rainstorms desolated Provence, France in 1651.79

The Seine River at Paris, France was so flooded that all houses near it were in danger, and great damage was done. On 4 March, a great tide broke down St. Anthony’s banks, and overflowed all Dimermeer. There was significant damage in north Holland and Amsterdam.72

The thunderstorms of the year 1651 produced a great flood year in France. All the rivers overflowed their banks. In Provence, France on September 8th, the Durance River ascended to the gates of Avignon. In November at Grenoble, the Isère River overflowed bridge and fifty houses, drowned fifteen hundred beasts in the country and three hundred in the city. The flood left three or four feet of sand in the streets. The waters rose, they say, more than twenty feet above their usual height.79

During the period between 1 April 1650 and 18 May 1651, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Yai. In 1651 during the period between 19 May and 12 November, a drought engulfed Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Kan-ch’üan, Yen-ch’ang and An-ting.153

In 1651, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 21 January and 19 February, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Shih-tai; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Soochow; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Ching.
— During the period between 9 May and 17 June, floods struck Anhwei province at Ch’ien-shan and Wang-chiang. At Ch’ien-shan, innumerable houses were damaged by the floodwaters. At Wang-chiang, there was a great storm.
— During the period between 18 June and 16 July, floods struck Anhwei province at Ching-tê. Innumerable people and cattle drowned.
— During the period between 15 September and 13 October, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou and Shui-an; and Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-ch’un and T’ai-ts’ang. The crops were damaged by the floodwaters.
— During the period between 13 November and 12 December, floods struck Hopei province at Nan-ho, Kuang-tsung, Nan-yüeh, Yü-t’ien, Hsing-t’ai, and Ning-ho.


1652 A.D.

In England, the years 1651-54 produced scorching hot dry summers and dry years.47, 72

In England, the summer was excessively hot and dry.72

In 1652, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 49 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1652, there was a drought in Scotland. The warmth was very great, the summer being the driest ever known in Scotland.212

The summer of 1652 was very hot and very dry in Denmark and England. At Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 20 September. This was the third famine year of the grain.62

In Copenhagen, Denmark, the summer was excessively hot and dry.72
On 23-24 September 1652, an Atlantic hurricane struck the Leeward Islands. Three ships and crew went

missing.141
In 1652, Prince Maurice was lost in a hurricane in the West Indies. [Prince Maurice was a prince of the

elector Palatine region of Europe.] He was in a fleet under the command of his brother Prince Rupert.145

The River Arve falls into the River Rhone, about 1000 paces beneath [Lake] Geneva, Switzerland. In December 1652, the River Arve swelled so that it not only overflowed it banks but also interrupted the course of the Rhone, and forced it to reenter in the Lake for a space of 14 hours.234

In 1652, floods struck many regions of China including: 153

— During the period between 10 March and 7 April, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Tung-liu.
— During the period between 8 April and 7 May, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’i-tung.

— During the period between 6 June and 5 July, floods struck Shantung province at Lin-ch’ing, Hui-min, Shang-ho and Yüeh-ling; and Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at P’ing-ting, Hsi-yang and Shou-yang. Nearly all the villages in these districts were flooded.
— During the period between 6 July and 3 August, floods struck Shantung province at Shou-kuang, Ch’ang-yüeh, An-ch’iu and Kao-wan; and Shansi province at Hsi-yang, An-tsê, Lin-fên and Jung-ho.

— During the period between 4 August and 2 September, floods struck Shantung province at Mêng-yin; Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at T’ien-shui and Lung-hsi; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou; Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chung-hsiang; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at K’ai-p’ing.

— During the period between 3 September and 2 October, floods struck Kwangtung province at P’u-ning and Chekiang province at T’ung-hsiang.

In 1652, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ung-ling, Wu-wei, Lu-chiang, Wuhu and Tang-t’u.
— During the period between 6 June and 5 July, a severe drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Shanghai.
— During the period 3-31 October, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wu-ch’iang.

In 1652 during the 4th moon on the 5th day, great rains cause the river to flood in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166


1653 A.D.

On 13 July 1653, an Atlantic hurricane struck Barbados in the Lesser Antilles and St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands. One ship and crew was lost. At St. Vincent in the Caribbean Sea, there was “death of many savages”. 141

In July 1653, it was so furiously hot in Poland, that in the regiment of foot [soldiers] which was the King’s Guard, marching most of them barefooted upon sand, more than 100 fell down altogether disabled [heat stroke], whereof a dozen died outright, without any other sickness.234

In England, the years 1651-54 produced scorching hot dry summers and dry years.47, 72
In 1653, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 35 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In Dijon, France in 1653, the grape harvest began on 11 September; 13 days earlier than the mean. In France the price of corn fell by half.62

In 1653, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 27 April and 26 May, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Shih-shou, Chih-chiang and Sung-tzŭ. At Sung-tzŭ, the dikes were damaged.
— During the period between 27 May and 24 June, floods struck Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Ch’in-shui and Shou-yang; Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at An-k’ang; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’in.

— During the period between 25 June and 23 July, floods caused by a typhoon struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Soochow. Many people drowned. During the same time floods struck Shensi province at An-ting and Pai-ho. The occupants drowned. Also during this time, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Yang-ku and Wên-têng. At Yang-ku, crops and houses were damaged by the floodwaters. At Wên-têng, houses and over 4,000 acres of land were damaged.
— During the period between 23 August and 21 September, floods struck Kiangsu province at T’ai-ts’ang and Hsiao; and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chia-hsing.
— During the period between 22 September and 20 October, floods struck Shantung province at Hsin and Lin-ch’ing.

In 1653 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Yüeh-t’ing. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hai-ning and Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-yu.153

In 1653, there was a very hurtful drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. The drought caused a famine.166


1654 A.D.

In England, the years 1651-54 produced scorching hot dry summers and dry years.47, 72 In 1654, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 26 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
There was a great drought in southern France in 1654-56. Rains were very rare.79

In 1654 during the period between 17 April and 15 May, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Ao-ch’êng and Mien-yang. At Mien-yang the dikes were damaged. During the period between 15 June and 13 July, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Hsing-ning and Lung-ch’uan. During the period between 14 July and 11 August, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Shih-p’ing [probably a misprint, “Jên-p’ing”]. Villages were flooded.153

In 1654 during the period between 16 May and 14 June, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at T’ien-t’ai. During the period between 12 August and 10 September, a drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Hsiang-yüan and Ch’in. During the period between 9 December 1654 and 7 January 1655, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wu-ch’iang.153

In 1654 during the 3rd moon in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a storm of great wind and hail. During the 5th moon, there was great rain for ten days. Again in the next month there was a storm that damaged the rice crop.166

Winter of 1654 / 1655 A.D. Mr. Fehre, Chief Secretary to Prince Radzivil, assures us, that in the war against the Muscovites and Cossacks in January 1655 at the siege of Bichow in White Russia [now Belarus], all their provisions of Spanish wines and peterfimen, and beer were in one night frozen upon the sledge, notwithstanding they were covered with straw. Insomuch that they were constrained to carry them into a stove to thaw them, which they could not do in two whole days, and were obligated to break the vessels, and put pieces of the ice wine into kettles, to thaw them over the fire in order to drink them. But he observed that the Hungarian wine resisted the cold better than the peterfimen. The scrue [screw lid] of a flagon of Aqua Vitæ [ethanol] being put to his mouth stuck close to his lips [froze to his lips] that he could not draw it off without drawing blood. The pool of the village (where they quartered) was so thoroughly frozen, that there was but very little water left between the ice and the bottom.234


1655 A.D.

In England in January 20, there were considerable floods.47, 72, 92
In 1655, there was a plague in London, England.212
In 1655, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 33 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 There was a great drought in southern France in 1654-56. Rains were very rare.79

In 1655 during the period between 6 February and 7 March, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Yen-ch’êng. Innumerable persons were drowned. During the period between 6 May and 3 June, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Shih-tai; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chia-hsing; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chung-hsiang and Ch’ien-chiang. During the period between 4 July and 1 August, the Chang River flooded in Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China and Honan (now Henan province) in central China.153

In 1655, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 6 February and 7 March, a severe drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Hsing-t’ia.
— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Sui-an.
— During the period between 6 May and 3 June, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Chin-hua.
— During the period between 4 June and 3 July, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tsou-p’ing.
— During the period between 31 August and 29 September, a severe drought engulfed Shantung province at Ch’ang-yüeh; Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’ü-chiang and Lung-mên; and Chekiang province at Hu-chou, Ch’ü, K’ai-hua and Chiang-shan. The crops were damaged by the drought.
— During the period between 29 October and 27 November, a drought engulfed Kwangtung province at Chieh-yang and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Ch’üan-chiao.

In 1655 during the winter, Mau and Tien lakes in China were frozen over. For several days, people could walk over them.166

Winter of 1655 / 1656 A.D. In 1655-56, the Seine River in France was frozen from the December 8th to the 18th. It froze again without interruption from 29 December to 28 January. A new frost occurred a few days later and the river again froze which lasted into March.38, 60 [Another account gives this as the winter of 1656-57.] “The Seine froze from 8 to 18 December 1656.” 62

This winter of 1655-56 in France and Germany was very severe. In Paris, France, it froze on 25 and 26 November 1655. In the first days of December, it snowed. From 8 to 18 December the cold was the very great. The Seine River froze. From 18 to 28 December, the air was damp. On 29 December, the frost began again and lasted until 28 January 1656. Then a new frost began after a few days, which lasted until March. During the later frost, the cold was less severe than in December. In Germany, the cold was so great that one could get in Wismar (Mecklenburg-Schwerin) onto the frozen Baltic Sea with a loaded four-horse wagon and travel a distance of 5-6 German miles, which has not been the case for many years. On the land, the wells were frozen to the bottom. On the roads in Bohemia [now western Czech Republic], several people were found frozen to death.62

In 1655, the frost began on November 25 in northern France. The frost became intensive from December

8 to 10, and continued, after two short thaws, until March. The Seine River was taken [frozen].79 In 1655, it was very cold in Scotland. The excessive snow and rain did great injury this winter.212 1656 A.D. In Rome, Italy, there were floods.47, 72, 92
In 1656 and 1657 in Rome, Italy, there was a famine.57, 72, 91

There was a great drought in southern France in 1654-56. Rains were very rare.79

In England beginning on 20 July 1656, there was two separate hailstorms in Norwich in quick succession. The following accounts were published.93

The most Lamentable and Dreadful Thunder and Lightning in the County of Norfolk and the City of Norwich, on July 20, being the Lord’s Day in the afternoon: the Whirlwind and thick darkness, and most prodigious hailstones, which being above 5 inches about, did so violently batter down the windows of the City, that three thousand pounds will hardly repair them. Divers [diverse] men and women struck dead. The firing of some towns, and whole fields of corn, by lightning, which also destroyed the birds of the air and the beasts of the field.

Together with another most violent Storm, which happened on Saturday last, in the same County, for almost thirty miles together, performed the like terrible effects. Attested by ten thousand witnesses, who were either spectators or partakers of the loss. Entered according to order, the 31 July, 1656.

The drought in England lasted to the spring. On 8 October, the River Thames ebbed and flowed thrice in three hours space. In July, there were so great rains, which caused the Danube River to flood over its banks. It broke down all the bridges and most of the mills. Many people were lost and a great number of cattle were carried away. Sixteen towns and villages were swept off by the irresistible torrents.72

[In England] it was excessively rainy, unequal and southerly.72


In 1656,

the price of wheat [in England] averaged 43 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In Denmark, the summer was very unequal with heat, rain and south winds.72

In 1656, a hurricane struck Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles. Every vessel at anchor in the roads was wrecked and most of their crews drowned.141

The island of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles in 1656 was desolated by a tremendous hurricane. Most of the houses were destroyed. All the domestic animals were killed. All the plantations were laid waste. Every vessel at anchor in the roads was wrecked, and most of their crews drowned.143

In 1656 during the period between 24 May and 21 June, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wu-ch’iang; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Hsing-ning. During the period between 22 July and 19 August, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai, P’ing-hsiang and Ning-tu. During the period between 16 November and 15 December, floods struck Chekiang province at P’ing-hu, Hu-chou and T’ien-t’ai.153

In 1656 during the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Chang-ch’iu and Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Lu-ch’êng, Kao-p’ing and Ch’in-shui. These regions were also affected by floods. During the period between 18 October and 15 November, a severe drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Chieh-yang.153


1657 A.D.

In England, this year produced a scorching hot dry summer.47, 72
In England, the spring to the end of summer was most excessively hot, even scorching both night and

day.72
In 1657, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 46 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212 In 1656 and 1657 in Rome, Italy, there was a famine.57, 72, 91

There were great thunderstorm outbursts in 1657 that were similar to those of 1651 in France. These caused great floods. Camargue, France was buried by the Rhône River.79 [Camargue is the area where the two arms of the Rhône River form a delta in southern France.]

In 1657, a hurricane struck off the Bahamas. Two salvage vessels were sunk in a storm off Gorda Cay.141 On 2 August 1657 at Feversham in Kent, England, there was a very high spring tide. The interesting

thing was the winds were at southeast, which deads [deadens, diminishes] the tide there.225

In 1657, during the period between 12 June and 10 July, a drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Hsiao and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ai-hu. Rivers and wells dried up. During the period between 11 July and 9 August, floods struck Anhwei province at T’ai-p’ing, Shih-tai and T’ung-ling. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Wan-mên Mountain and Kao-yao; and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at An-ch’iu. During the period between 8 September and 6 October, a drought engulfed Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Ching-yang and Shang-nan.153


Winter of 1657 / 1658 A.D.

King Charles X Gustav of Sweden was at war with Denmark. An intense cold wave descended on the Small Belt in the middle of December 1657 and it appeared that Baltic Sea might freeze over. Charles X moved his army from Poland and approached Copenhagen from the south. He arrived at Haderslev in South Jutland on 28 January 1858. The cold on the night of 29 January was very severe. On the next morning, he gave the orders and his army crossed the frozen Small Belt on foot and invaded and conquered the island of Funen. He then traveled on the frozen Great Belt and leapfrogged through the islands of Langeland, Lolland, Falster, and finally his army reached Zealand on 11 February.35 [The Small Belt is the strait between the Danish island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula. The Great Belt is the strait between the main Danish islands of Zealand and Funen.]

In 1658, Charles X, King of Sweden, traversed the Little Belt with his army, artillery, caissons, baggage, etc.38, 60

In 1658, Charles X of Sweden crossed the Little Belt over the ice from Holstein, Germany to Denmark, with his whole army.90

In 1658, the bays and inlets of Northern Europe froze over early in December. Charles X of Sweden crossed the strait to Denmark with his whole army, including the artillery, baggage and provision trains.63

In 1658 in Northern Europe, the army of Charles X of Sweden crossed the ice from Holstein to Denmark

– horse, foot and artillery.47, 93

During the winter of 1657-58 in France, an uninterrupted frost occurred from the 24th of December 1657 to the 8th of January 1658. Then the cold moderated. But then an extreme cold wave set in and the Seine River in France was entirely closed due to the ice. A slight thaw took place on 8 February, but the frost again recurred and continued from the 11th to the 18th of February.38, 60

Europe experienced a cold winter. There was great snow in Rome, Italy on 27 February 1658.28

In 1658, the Seine River in France was completely frozen from the first days of January to the 21st. The rivers of Italy froze deep enough to bear the heaviest carts. The army of Charles X, King of Sweden, marched on the ice on the Little Belt.62

The winter of 1658 in France destroyed the olive trees. The winter was accompanied by deep snows.79 In England, there was a frost from 1st December to 10th March with a “north wind”.47, 93 . . . with a north

wind even to January.72
During the winter of 1658, it was excessively cold [in England] and the price of wheat doubled.212

In England, the winter was severely cold. From 1 December 1657 to the Equinox [around March 20/21], the earth was covered with snow. There were north winds the whole time. It continued till 1 June like a winter.72

The winter of 1657-58 was very severe in Europe, from the Baltic Sea to where Charles X of Sweden his whole army, cavalry, artillery, ammunition and baggage wagons, etc. went on the ice from Funen to Zealand. In Italy, the rivers were frozen deep enough to carry the heaviest wagon. In Rome there was a tremendous amount of snow. In Provence many olive trees were lost to the cold.62

The winter in Paris, France: “it was cold, 24 December 1657 until 20 January 1658, but the cold at that time was not very sharp. On 20 January, however; an unusually sharp violent north wind; very few people could remember to have seen such a piercing cold. Everything was frozen. This intense cold lasted until 26 January. On 27 January the weather turned somewhat milder and a hoped for thaw was in the air. But on 28 January, a very deep penetrating cold again reappeared and last until 8 February. On 9 and 10 February, the ice and the snow that had fallen in abundance began to melt. But at 2 o’clock in the morning on Monday the 11th, the wind again came from the north and northeast, and it froze the waters anew, and the frost was unusually severe. At sunrise no trace of the previous thaw could be seen. This severe cold lasted until 18 February. Finally on the 19th the winds changed to a northwesterly, and then the winds began to blow from the west. The snow and ice again began to thaw and continued without interruption. On 21 February the ice broke, which completely covered the Seine River. On the 22nd the river began to swell. On the 27th and 28th the river came out of its banks and the inundation was greater than anyone could remember. From 6 o’clock in the evening of the 27 February until noon on the 28th, the water washed the walls of the church of St. Andre-des Arcs. One needed wooden planks to cross the street. At noon on the 28th, the water began to fall. Due to the cold several people were killed, others suffered with the loss of family members. During the night of 28 February to 1 March was carried away a great part of the Marienbrücke (Mary’s Bridge) from the river, and several people were killed. The following day, the water carried away the back building on the waterfront along with houses standing on the waterfront.” 62

In France, there was a flood [caused by spring melt]. On 1 March 1658, the Seine River in Paris, France, at the bridge “Pont de la Tournelle” reached a height of 8.8 meters (28.9 feet) above the zero mark [the low water mark of the year 1719].71


1658 A.D.

In 1658, there was a plague in London, England.212
On 22 August 1658 at Feversham in Kent, England, there was a very high tide in the afternoon, though

the wind was southerly, and blew very stiff, which the seaman there wondered at.225

In Europe, “the day that Oliver Cromwell died (3rd September), a storm so violent and terrible extended all over Europe.” 40, 41, 43, 56, 57

On 3 September 1658, the day that Cromwell died, there was a hurricane throughout Europe, which did very considerable damage.90

On May 22 at Faversham (Kent), England, there were considerable floods.47, 72, 92

In England during the spring, the north wind and cold continued so rigorous and long, that farmers lost hope of their corn [grain] either growing or ripening. But from 1 August came such an excessive heat, as was truly uneasy. In Modena in northern Italy, there was excessive heat and drought. In Abdera in Thracia, there was an excessively hot summer. In Denmark and Copenhagen, there was drought and excessive heat.72 [Abdera in Thracia was a city-state on the coast of Thrace, 17 kilometers east-northeast of the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. The site now lies in the Xanthi peripheral unit of modern mainland Greece.]

The summer of 1658 in England was remarkably warm, especially towards the end of the season. In Dijon, France, the harvest began on 30 September.62

On 3 September 1658, a very alarming and destructive storm struck England in which many houses were blown down and others unroofed. Churches, steeples, and whole groves of trees were prostrated, and immense damage done to the shipping. Among a great many other vessels which were lost with most of their crews, were eight frigates and ships of the line, and two thousand officers and seamen perished.1

On 3 September 1658, there was a great gale in England. “It was such a night in London as had rarely been passed by dwellers in crowded streets. Trees were torn from their roots in the park, chimneys blown down, and houses unroofed in the city. Cromwell died that night.” There was another great gale immediately before this one, which struck throughout Europe.212

In 1658 in London, England, the tide in the River Thames ebbed and flowed twice in three hours.212 In 1658, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 65 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1658, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 3 April and 1 May, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Taichow.
— During the period between 6 May and 6 August, floods struck Chekiang province at Ch’êng; Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsia-chiang; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Tzŭ-kuei, I-ch’ang, Sung-tzŭ, Ao-ch’êng, Huang-kang, Hanyang, An-lu, Kung-an, I-ch’êng, Tang-yang and Ching-mên. At I-ch’êng, the fields were damaged by the floodwaters. At Tang-yang, the city walls, dikes, houses and fields were damaged by the floodwaters and innumerable people drowned. At Ching-mên, crops and houses were damaged.

— During the period between 8 August and 8 November, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Soochow; Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Shu-ch’êng, Wu-ho, Shih-tai and Wu-yüan; and Hupeh province at Ch’ien-chiang and Chung-hsiang. At Chung-hsiang, the dikes were damaged.

In 1658, during the period between 29 May and 26 September, a severe drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ang-yüeh.153


Winter of 1658 /1659 A.D.

During the winter of 1659 [in Europe], there was no frost or snow.62 1659 A.D. In 1659, there was a great hailstorm in Staffordshire in the west Midlands of England that

destroyed poultry and hares.93

On the Sunday before the Feast of Saint James in 1659, there was a hailstorm in Staffordshire, England. The hailstones were as big as pullets’ eggs.194


In 1659,

the price of wheat [in England] averaged 66 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1659, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 21 May and 19 June, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Hsin-i.
— During the period between 20 June and 18 July, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chiang-ling and Chekiang province at Ch’ü, Chiang-shan and Ch’ang-shan.
— During the period between 19 July and 17 August, floods struck Hupeh province at Han-ch’uan, Wuchang and Mien-yang.
— During the period between 14 December 1659 and 11 January 1660, floods struck Chekiang province at Hsien-chü; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Nan-t’ung [uncertain name]; and Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Yen-ch’uan.

During the period between 25 November 1658 and 19 June 1659, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Lung-chou. In 1659 during the period between 20 June and 18 July, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Hui-lai and Kweichow (now Guizhou province) in southwestern China at Ts’ên-kung, Yü-p’ing and An-nan.153

Winter of 1659 / 1660 A.D.

In Provence and in Italy the winter was very cold again. The olive trees were destroyed, almost completely.62

In 1659, the frost was severe [in England]. The price of wheat doubled during the winter.212 In 1660, it was very cold [in England], and the price of wheat doubled during the winter.212

On 8 December 1659, a gale struck England. A remarkably high wind, such as had never before been experienced in this country, did great damage to the houses in York.212


1660 A.D.

In England on the 11th of November, there were great floods in the River Thames valley.47, 72, 92

In England, the winter was stormy and tempestuous, causing great harm in many places. In the midst of it much thunder and lightning.72

In 1660, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 56 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1660 during the period between 12 January and 10 February, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wang-tu and Hsien. During the period between 5 February and 6 July, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at San-shui [uncertain name]. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Kwangtung province at Hui-yang and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chên-hai and T’ien-t’ai.153

In 1660 during the 1st moon in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, a dragon was seen, attended with great rain. [In early China, tornadoes and waterspouts were commonly described as dragons.] 166


1661 A.D.

In India, there was a great drought in the Punjab.47 [The region known as the Punjab in now in the northwest region of India, and eastern Pakistan.]

In India, there was a famine caused by a drought, confined to the Punjab.57

In 1661 there was a famine in the Northwest Provinces and Punjab region in India.156
— A famine struck India during the third year of the reign of Aurungzebe. “The rents of the husbandmen [farmers] and other taxes were remitted. The treasury of the Emperor was opened without limit; corn [grain] was bought in the provinces where the produce was least, conveyed to those in which it was most defective, and distributed to the people at reduced rates. The great economy of Aurungzebe, who allowed no expense for the luxury and ostentation of a court, and who managed with skill and vigilance the disbursements of the state, afforded him a resource for the wants of the people.”

In 1661, there was a famine in India during the third year of the reign of Aurungzeb, who attempted to levy 50% of the produce.182

In 1661 A.D., there was a very general and terrible famine in India. Muhammad Amin Razwiny wrote: “Life was offered for a loaf, but none cared for it; rank was to be sold for a cake, but none cared for it. For a long time dog’s flesh was sold for goat’s flesh and the pounded bones of the dead were mixed with flour and sold. Destitute at length reached such a pitch that men began to devour each other and the flesh of a son was preferred to his [son’s] love. The numbers of the dying caused obstruction in the roads.” Emperor Aurangzeb carried relief through every corner of his dominions. Whole provinces were delivered from impending destruction and many millions of lives were saved. He accomplished this by remitting taxes that were due. He expended immense sums out of the treasury in procuring grain from Bengal and the countries, which lie on the five branches of the Indus (which suffered less on account of the great rivers) and transported the grain by land and water to the interior provinces. The grain was purchases at any price, with public money; and it was resold at a very moderate rate.179

On 18 February 1661, a great and dreadful storm of wind accompanied by thunder, lightning, hail and rain struck England. The damage was estimated at a little less than 2 million of money [2 million pounds {£240 million in today’s currency using the retail price inflation index}].209
— Several people were killed by falling chimneys, houses, trees, barns, and windmills. Five or six were killed in London; one in Chiltenham [Cheltenham]; one in Scaldwel [Scaldwell]; one in Tewksbury [Tewkesbury]; two near Elsbury; one at Northampton; one at Colchester; two near Ipswich; and 3 near Langton, to name a few.
— Many churches were damaged by the wind. This damage included broken windows, stonework. The lead was torn up. Pinnacles, spires and steeples were thrown down. In some cases, the timberwork in the church was broken and the pulpit and pews were damaged. These included the churches at Tewksbury

[Tewkesbury], Red Marly [Redmarley], Newin, Worcester, Hereford, Leighton Beau-defart, Eaton-Soken [Eaton Socon], Shenley, Waddon [Whaddon], Woolston [Little Woolstone], Finchinfield [Finchingfield], and Ipswich, to name a few.
— Many houses and buildings were blown down, and others extremely shattered and torn.

— Many barns were destroyed. These included 30 barns near Ipswich; an incredible number near Tewsbury [Tewkesbury]; 11 barns at Twyning; 7 or 8 in Ashchurch; 5 in Lee; a great number at Norton; 140 in Worcestershire; 16 in Finchinfield [Finchingfield]; and at least 15 at Wilchamsted [Wilshamstead], to name a few.
— Many trees were blown down. These included 1,300 trees in Bramiton Bryan Park; 600 in Hopton Park; and 3,000 oak trees in the his Majesty’s Forest of Dean, to name a few. Several persons lost whole orchards of trees in the counties of Gloucester, Hereford and Worcester.
— The winds were strong enough to take people up into the air. On the bridge near Wallingford House in London, several people were blown off and landed on top each other. In Herefordshire, a man was blown over a very high hedge. In a pond at James’s Park, 2,000 fish were blown out and landed on the banks. Several people were blown into the air at Hereford.
— The rain that fell was as salty as brine.

On February 21, in Kent, England, there were considerable floods.47, 72, 92

In England, there were great hailstorms on 11th April and 11th October.57, 72, 93

In 1661, the price of wheat [in England] was high averaging 70 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1661, there was a drought in England. The River Derwent was so wonderfully dried up that in many places there was no water, and people might go over dryshod [without wetting the feet].212

In 1661, upon Michaelmas day, there was a great overflowing of the River Severn in England that drowned the low grounds lying by it.225

In 1661, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 28 May and 25 June, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Lung-ch’uan; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsia-chiang and Wan-tsai.
— During the period between 26 June and 25 July, floods struck Kwangtung province at Ho-yüan; Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh and Ts’ang-wu; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wu-ch’iang.
— During the period between 23 September and 22 October, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ch’un-an and Ch’ing-yüan; and Kiangsi province at Nan-ch’ang.

In 1661, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— Kweichow (now Guizhou province) in southwestern China at Nan-lung.
— Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Yung-chi.
— Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hai-yen and Shou-ch’ang.
— Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Chiang-yin.
— Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tung-a.
— During the period between 6 May and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Ningpo and Tung-yang.
— During the period between 23 September and 22 October, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Yü-yao, Hangchow, Chien-tê and T’ung-hsiang.

In 1661 during the 7th moon on the 26th day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there were three tides in

one day.166


1662 A.D.

A great storm struck London, England on February 18.40, 41, 43

On 30 July there was a prodigious storm of hail at Ormskirk in West Lancashire, England. Hailstones were four inches about and more. In the afternoon, on Macclesfield Forest, Cheshire, rose a pillar of smoke twenty yards broad and as high as a church steeple, which making a hideous noise, went along the ground for six or seven miles, leveling all before it. It threw down strong stone fences, and carried the stones to a great distance from their former places. But falling on a moorish ground, it did little damage. Its noise frightened cattle; they ran out of its way and were saved. A cornfield it passed over was laid flat with the ground, as though it had been trodden with feet. It went through a wood and tore up 100 trees by the root. Coming into a mowed field with hay ready to be carried off, it swept all away so as scarce a handful was ever found. From this forest it went to Taxhall, then to Waily-bridge, and then to the Derbyshire Mountains, where it vanished. [This is an interesting description of a tornado. Storms that produce tornados are very energetic and also produce hailstorms. The pillar of smoke is the funnel of debris brought up by the tornado. Tornados create loud sounds like freight trains. They either break large trees in half or uproot them.]72

In 1662, the price of wheat [in England] was high averaging 74 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1662, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 16 June and 14 July, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Canton.
— During the period between 15 July and 13 August, floods struck Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Pai-ho, An-k’ang, Yü-lin and Hsüan-yang [probably a misprint, “Hsün-yang”].
— During the period between 14 August and 11 September, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Hsiao-kan, Mien-yang, Chiang-ling, and Sung-tzŭ; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Chü-lu; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Yangchow, Hsing-hua, Hsiao and P’ei [P’ei is located at longitude 117.00° East and latitude 34.47° North.]; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsiu-shui [uncertain name].
— During the period between 12 September and 11 October, floods struck Hopei province at Ch’êng-an; and Hupeh province at Chung-hsiang, Ch’ien-chiang and T’ien-mên. At T’ien-mên, the dikes were damaged.
— During the period between 12 October and 10 November, floods struck Hopei province at Chi and Fou-ch’êng. [Chi is located at longitude 115.34° East and latitude 37.34° North.]

In 1662 during the period between 12 October and 10 November, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Ch’ang-li.153

In 1662 during the 1st moon, there were great rains in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. During the 7th moon in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there were three tides in one day. During this year, there was a great drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. This caused a bad harvest and a very scarce year.166

Winter of 1662 / 1663 A.D.


There was intense frost at Paris, France from the 5th of December 1662 to the 8th of March 1663.38, 58, 60, 80

During the winter of 1662-63, the Seine River in France froze in December 1662 completely.62
During this winter of 1662-63, which was very severe, the frost in Paris, France lasted from 5 December

until 8 March. The Seine River was frozen in December 1662 completely.62

In 1662 in northern France, there was a sustained frost from 5 December until 8 March. The cold

moderated on three occasions. The Seine River froze in December.79

In England, a very hard frost occurred on 28th November 1662. A severe frost occurred from the 28th of January to 11th of February 1663.72 The 8th of February 1663 being a very hard frost.47, 93

In 1662, the winter produced a strong frost in England. In London, the River Thames was partially frozen over towards the end of November. In this frost, ice skates were introduced into England from Holland [now the Netherlands]. On 1 December, the king witnessed the performance of skating.212


1663 A.D.

On 24 May 1663, there was a very high tide in London, England.225
In England, on the 28th of August “Cold all night and this morning, and a very great frost, they say,

abroad; which is much, having had no summer at all, almost.” 47, 93

[In England], it was rainy and floody.72

In England, there was a great death of cattle from a most severely rainy wet autumn.72

In 1663, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 57 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1663 in London, England, there was a fog in August.212

The summer of 1663 was cold and rainy in Doubs in eastern France. The grapes in Dijon, France, were not harvested until 8 October.62

[Although this is cited as 1662, it is out of chronological order and these entries appear to belong within the year 1663.] In 1662, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 10 March and 2 August, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Tung-kuan and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Yün-ch’êng.

— During the period between 7 May and 5 June, a drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Chiang-yin.
— During the period between 6 June and 4 July, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-kang.

— During the period between 5 July and 2 August, a drought engulfed Chahar province (now eastern Inner Mongolia) at Huai-lai.
— During the period 2-30 September, a drought engulfed Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Pao-an [uncertain name], Hupeh province at Lo-t’ien; and Kiangsu province at Hsiao.
— During the period between 12 October and 10 November, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Ch’ang-li.

In 1663, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 July and 2 August, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Chiao-ho; and Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Nan-chêng and along the Han River.
— During the period between 3 August and 1 September, floods struck Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Mêng-shan, P’ing-yüeh and Kuei; Shensi province at Sian; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Ta-yeh, Ch’i-ch’un and Chiang-ling.
— During the period 2-30 September, floods struck Hopei province at Chü-lu; and Hupeh province at Huang-kang, I-tu, Chung-hsiang, Ma-ch’êng, Sung-tzŭ, Kung-an and Chih-chiang. At Sung-tzŭ, the

dikes were damaged. At Kung-an, innumerable people drowned. At Chih-chiang, houses were damaged by the floodwaters and many people drowned.
— During the period 1-30 October, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at P’u-chiang; and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Tang-t’u and Wang-chiang.

The year 1663 was a year of great abundance in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Rice was excellent and double the usual quantity.166

Winter of 1663 / 1664 A.D.

The winter was very mild and rainy in Prussia.72 [After the year 1618 Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia. Today this region comprises parts of Poland and Lituania and Brandenburg in now east Germany.]

1664 A.D.

In London, England in January, there was a great hailstorm at Charing Cross.57, 72, 93 [In England], it was rainy and floody.72

[In England] on 26, 27 and 28 January 1664, there was an irregular tide when the sea flowed without ebbing.72

On 4 May 1664, heavy rains fell at Daintrey and the vicinity. At Dadford in Buckinghamshire, England in a short period of time rose at least 8 feet above the ordinary surface of the rill that runs through that town. The flood either on the 4th or 5th, broke down the two middle arches of the South Bridge at Northampton and overthrew many hundred yards of walling. On the 5th or 6th of May at Peterborough, two men who went out in the morning, upon their return home in the dark of night (knowing nothing about this unexpected flood on the River Nyne) were accidentally drowned. [The country in the lower part of the Rivers Weland and Nyne, particularly in the regions of Stamford and Peterborough have seen great inundations in no more than four hours space, yet not so much as a drop of rain in many miles about the towns.]195

In 1664, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 40 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212
In 1664 there was a great plague in London, England that began in December. It slumbered between

Christmas to February.212

On 29 July 1664, a hailstorm struck Padua in northern Italy. “This storm happen’d July 29, about three o’Clock in the afternoon, at the bottom of the Euganean Hills, about fix [six] Miles from Padua, it extended upwards of thirty Miles in length, and about fix [six] in breadth; and the Hail-Stones which fell in great quantities were of different fizes [sizes]; the largeft [largest] of an Oval form, as big as Turkey Egs [Eggs], and very hard; the next fize [size] Globular, but fomewhat [somewhat] comprefs’d [compressed]; and others that were more numerous, perfectly round, and about the bignefs [bigness] of Tennis Balls.” 194

In 1664, a violent hurricane at Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles destroyed their potato crop.143

In 1664, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 29 December 1663 and 27 January 1664, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at P’u-ch’i, Ta-yeh, Mien-yang, T’ien-mên and Chiang-ling. At Chiang-ling, the dikes were damaged.
— During the period between 27 March and 25 April, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Fou-ch’êng; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai.

— During the period between 24 June and 22 July, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ta-pu; Hupeh province at T’ien-mên; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hai-ning; and Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at P’ien-kuan [possible a misprint, “P’ien-lü”]. At P’ien-kuan, many houses were damaged by the floodwaters.

— During the period between 23 July and 20 August, floods struck Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Yen-ch’ang; and Hopei province at Ch’ang-li.
— During the period between 21 August and 19 September, floods struck Hopei province at Chiao-ho; and Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Ts’ang-wu. — During the period between 20 September and 18 October, floods struck Chekiang province at Yü-yao, Shao-hsing, Hsien-chü and T’ung-hsiang. At Yü-yao and Shao-hsing, the crops were damaged by the floodwaters.

In 1664, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Chieh-yang and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Chiao-ho, Hsing-t’ai and Nei-ch’iu.
— During the period between 6 May and 9 August, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ang-shan, P’ing-yüan, Yü-ch’êng, Tsou, Lin-i [uncertain name, “Lin-tao”], Hui-min, Fei, Ting-t’ao, Hsin and Mou-p’ing [uncertain name, “Ning-hai”]; Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Fou-yang; and Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at Hua-yang.

Winter of 1664 / 1665 A.D.

In England, there was a frost from 28th December to 7th February. The 6th of February “one of the coldest days, they all say, ever felt in England.” 47, 93

In England in the latter end of 1664 began a most severe frost which continued to the latter end of March 1665.72

In 1664 [in England] until the beginning of March, there was a very violent frost that froze up all things from the beginning of winter.212

In January and February 1665, there were sharp frosts [in England].212
On 2 January 1665, the frost was so bitter in Poland that three soldiers died from the cold in passing along a ditch; other lost some of their limbs [to frostbite].234

The winter was very severe [in France]. In Belgium there were very severe frosts and heavy snowfalls. The winter of January 1665 was similar to the winter of January 1655 in Poland. The winter in Poland was so severe that most of the wines froze and several people lost their limbs [due to severe frostbite], and others froze to death.62

1665 A.D.

In England, there were great flooding of rivers, and inundations from the sea.47, 72, 92

[In England], there were very great floods, both from rains and from the Sea.72

In England in February, there was a great tempest, accompanied by thunder, and lightning.72

In England, the whole summer was very temperate; neither cold nor hot; dry nor rainy; but pleasant mild breezes which fanned the air and kept it healthy. Great plenty of all sorts of fruits, good and cheap.72

In 1665, there was a great plague in England. One account gives the death toll at 68,000 people in London. Another account by Defoe reports the plague “May to July severe; August and September 8000 persons died weekly; in the middle of September, 12,000 persons in one week, and 4000 in one night; and in the whole 100,000 died.” After an order to kill cats and dogs, it is said that 40,000 dogs and 200,000 cats were destroyed. In a third account in 1665-66, “in London 68,596 persons are said to have died of the plague”. At Yarmouth, great havoc was made by the plague. The plague was very fatal at Derby. “The country people refused to bring their commodities to the marketplace, depositing them outside town; then retired to a distance till the buyer had deposited his money in a vessel filled with vinegar.” At Winchester, the dead were carried out by cartloads at a time, and the plague was as bad as in London. At Eyam, 259 persons perished.212

In 1665, there was a cattle plague in London, England.212
On 25 October 1665, there was a great gale in London, England.212
In 1665, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 69 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1665, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 16 January and 14 February, floods struck Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Fên-yang.
— During the period between 15 April and 14 May, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Fou-yang and Fên-yang; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wang-tu. — During the period between 11 August and 8 September, floods struck Shansi province at P’ing-ting; Hopei province at Ching, Fei-hsiang, Wang-tu and Chi-tsê; Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at T’ien-mên; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou and Li-shui; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at P’ing-hsiang.
— During the period between 9 September and 8 October, floods struck Hopei province at Kao-i; Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Jên-hua; Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh and Ts’ang-wu.

In 1665, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a severe drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ao-ch’êng, Ch’êng-wu, Ên, T’ang-i, Hsia-ching and Yeh; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Tung-ming, Ling-shou and Wu-i.
— During the period between 15 April and 2 June, a severe drought engulfed Shantung province at Kao-mi.
— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a severe drought engulfed Shantung Province at P’êng-lai.
— During the period between 11 August and 8 September, a drought engulfed Honan (now Henan province) in central China at Mêng; Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at P’ing-ting, Tai, Shou-yang, P’u and Wên-shui.
— During the period between 9 September and 8 October, a drought engulfed Shantung province at Tzŭ-yang and Chi-ning.

In 1665 during the 7th moon in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a typhoon. The sea broke embankments. People floated out to sea on the wrecks of houses. Some people were rescued by an officer.166

Winter of 1665 / 1666 A.D.

On 17 December 1665, it was very cold in London, England.212

1666 A.D.

There was a very great drought in England. On 24 January, there was a tempest at Hampshire. On 10 May, there was a tempest of thunder and lightning at Oxford. On 17 July, there was a hailstorm on the coast of Suffolk with some hailstones nine inches about.72

On 24 January 1666, there was a thunderstorm at Andover, England. And on 12 May at Oxford.212

In 1666 at Cransted in Kent, England, there was a shower of fishes. A great tempest of thunder and rain, and, although no ponds about, two acres were scattered over with whitings of the size of a man’s little finger. This occurred on the Wednesday before Easter.212

In 1666, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 36 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
In 1666, there was a plague at Sandwich and Stamford, England. At Stamford, upwards of 380 people

died.212
In 1666, diarrhea prevailed in London, England and lasted until 1672.212

During the summer of 1666, there was an extreme drought in Somerset, England. In the moors [bogs] between Yeovil and Bridgewater, the dried pasture showed the outline of trees beneath. They were dug up and there was hundreds of oaks as black as ebony.234

The summer of 1666 was hot and dry in England. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 10 September; 14 days before the mean.62

On 17 July 1666, a violent storm of hail fell on the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk in east England. At North Yarmouth, the hailstones were comparatively small; but at Snape Bridge, one was taken up which measured a foot in circumference; at Seckford Hall, one which measured nine inches; and at Melton, one measured eight inches. At Friston Hall, one of these hailstones, being put into a balance, weighed two and a half ounces. At Aldborough, several of them were as large as turkeys’ eggs. A carter [a person who hauls goods in a cart] had his head broken by hailstones even though he was wearing a stiff felt hat. In some places the wound bled, and in others, tumors arose. His horses were so pelted that they fled taking his cart with them. The hailstones were white, smooth without, and shining within.191

On 17 July 1666, there was a hailstorm in Suffolk, England. “At Seekford House, one stone [hailstone] 9 inches [23 centimeters] about [in circumference]; at Melton 8 inches [20 centimeters] about; at Snapebridge one hailstone 12 inches [30 centimeters] about; at Friston Hall, one weighed 12s. 6d.; at Aldborough some were full as bigg [big] as turkey’s eggs (a hen egg weighs about 9s.); at Yarmouth hail small.” 212

On 17 July 1666, a hailstorm struck Aldborough [Aldeburgh] in Suffolk, England. The hailstones were as big as turkey’s eggs.295

In England on the 31st of July, there was a severe hailstorm and rain.57, 72, 93
[In England] in 1666, there was a sundry of [many] tempest of thunder, lightning, rain, hail and wind.72

In 1666, a hurricane struck Antigua in the West Indies. During the hurricane, two English warships were lost in the English harbor with a great loss of life.141

On 28 July 1666, Lord Willoughby fleet set sail with seventeen sails [sailing ships] and nearly 2,000 troops [and took possession of St. Lucia.] On 2 August, his fleet was off Guadeloupe. On 4 August, three frigates and some smaller vessels were sent in, and destroyed the French ships in the Saints [Barbados]. Symptoms of an approaching hurricane made Lord Willoughby extremely anxious for the return of the ships from the Saints; but the commanding officer’s ship had suffered some damage, and could not be refitted before night. At 6 p.m., the gale began from the north, and continued with great violence till midnight, when after a calm, which lasted for a quarter of an hour, it shifted suddenly to the east-southeast driving every thing before it with irresistible violence. Every vessel and boat upon the coast of Guadeloupe was dashed to pieces. All the vessels in the Saints were driven on shore. The whole of Lord Willoughby’s fleet, only two were ever heard of afterwards. An armée-en-flute of twenty-two guns got to Montserrat with only the stump of her mizenmast standing, and a fire ship got to Antigua, dismasted. The bottom of one ship was washed on shore at Cabsterre [Capesterre], Guadeloupe, and another at the Saints: the whole coast was covered with the wrecks of masts and yards) a figure from the stern of Lord Willoughby’s ship was recognized among the ruins. The hurricane lasted twenty-four hours: houses and trees were blown down, and a great number of cattle killed. The sea rose, and was driven to an unusual height. All the batteries — walls of six feet thickness, near the sea, were destroyed, and guns, fourteen pounders, were washed away. The storm was felt at St. Christopher’s island [St. Kitts] and Martinico, [Martinique] but with less violence.143

On 14-15 August 1666, a hurricane struck Guadeloupe in the Leeward Islands of the West Indies and Martinique in the eastern Caribbean. The hurricane caused < 2,000 deaths. [Alexander (1902) notes, “17 sail with 2000 troops…only two were ever heard of afterwards”. Other references indicate that additional ships may have survived.]141

On 14-15 August 1666, a great Atlantic hurricane struck the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique causing approximately 2,000 deaths.107

In England, it was intensely hot and dry.72 There were east winds. The Great Fire of London occurred.47 [The largest fire that ever occurred in London, England commenced on 2 September 1666 and continued for four days, and consumed thirteen thousand houses, eight-six churches and public buildings. St. Paul’s Cathedral was among the number. The buildings were all destroyed on 400 streets.1]

In England in October, there were great floods.47, 92 on October 14 and 16.72 In 1666, Lake Constance in Switzerland flooded.175

In Lincolnshire, England on 13 October 1666, there was a dreadful storm of thunder, accompanied with hail, the stones as large as pigeon or even pullet eggs, followed by a storm or tempest, attended with a strange noise. It came with such violence and force, that at Welbourn, it leveled most of the houses to the ground. It broke down some trees and tore up other trees by the roots. It scattered abroad much corn and hay. One boy only was killed. It went on to Willingmore, where it overthrew some houses and killed two children in them. Thence it passed on and touched the skirts of Nanby and ruined a few houses. Keeping its course to the next town, where it dashed the church steeple in pieces, furiously damaging the church itself, both stone and timber work. It left little of either standing, only the body of the steeple. It threw down many trees and houses. It moved in a channel, not a great breadth. Otherwise it would have ruined a great part of the country. It moved in a circle and looked like fire. It went through Nottinghamshire, where the hailstones were nine inches about. The whirlwind was about 60 yards broad. On Nottingham Forest, it broke down and tore up at least 1,000 trees, overthrew many windmills, overturned boats on the River Trent. In a village of 50 houses, it left only 7 standing. [description of a tornado]72

In 1666, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 6 March and 3 April, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Chieh-yang.

— During the period between 4 April and 3 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung province at San-shui. — During the period between 3 June and 1 July, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chung-hsiang and Ta-yeh.
— During the period 2-31 July, a drought engulfed Hunan province in south-central China at Hêng-yang and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ning-hai [uncertain name].

— During the period 8 August 1666 and 22 May 1667, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang province at Hsüan-p’ing and Sung-yang.

In 1666, there was a great drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166
Winter of 1666 / 1667 A.D. At the end of December 1666, there was a very hard frost in London, England.212
In the beginning of January 1667 [in England], there was a hard frost.212
In England, there was a frost from the 15th of February to the 19th of March.47, 72, 93

In 1667, “On the 16th of March, a sharp northeast wind began to freeze very strongly, the sea that lies before Amsterdam; the Y on the 17th was solid; on the 18th we went from this city on the ice to North Holland; the Zuiderzee was completely frozen, and several ships were stuck in the middle of ice, which by the 1st of April is stopped.” 62 [The “IJ” which sometimes shows up on old maps as “Y” or “Ye” is a river formerly a bay in the Dutch province of North Holland. So the “Y” reference in this instance is the old Zuider Zee, that today in the area of Amsterdam is the LJmeer Lake.]

The winter in 1667 was very severe in Holland [now the Netherlands], but extreme cold occurred late in the season, from 16 March to 1 April.62

1667 A.D.

[In England], the air was cold and wet. Winds were from the north. Summer was very unequal.72

In 1667, Nottingham and London, England were visited by the plague.212
In 1667, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 36 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

On 19 August 1667, a hurricane struck the island of Nevis in the Leeward Islands of the West Indies. Before the hurricane struck, there was a high mountain that was all green with trees. But afterwards, in most places it was bare. The wood lying is such a condition, with half trees, or stumps, or quarters, that one would think it almost incredible.234

In Montbéliard, France in 1667 the summer was very cold and dry. There was not a single month throughout the year in which it had not frozen. In Burgundy, France, the grape harvest began on 28 September.62

On 1 September 1667, a tremendous hurricane desolated the island of St. Christopher [St. Kitts] in the West Indies. The hurricane blew with such violence, that all the houses and buildings were blown down. The inhabitants sought shelter from its fury by throwing themselves flat upon the ground in the fields.143

In 1667, a hurricane struck St. Kitts in the West Indies destroying all the houses on the island. The French governor reported:143, 144

I hold myself obliged to inform you that this island is in the most deplorable state that can be imagined and that the inhabitants could not have suffered a greater loss, or been more unfortunate

except they had been taken by the English. There is not a house or sugar works standing, and they cannot hope to make any sugar for fifteen months to come. As for the manioc, which is the bread of the country, there is not one left, and they are more than a year in growing … I assure you that if peace is not made, or men-of-war sent to this country to facilitate the bringing of cassava from the other islands, that the inhabitants and troops will die of famine.

On 6 September 1667, an Atlantic hurricane struck Virginia in the United States. [Virginia was originally called Wingandacoa.] Buried in the ruins were much goods and many people. Many lives were lost.141

In 1667 during the period between 18 September and 16 October, floods struck Hunan province in south- central China at Lei-yang; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Huai-lai, Ho-chien and Li.153

In 1667, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period 8 August 1666 and 22 May 1667, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang province at Hsüan-p’ing and Sung-yang.
— During the period 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Canton, Hui-yang, Hai-fêng and Hui-lai.
— During the period 23 April and 22 May, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-kang.
— During the period 6 May and 8 November, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai.
— During the period 21 June and 20 July, a severe drought engulfed Hupeh province at Ying-shan, Huang-an, Lo-t’ien and Ch’i-shui.

In 1667 during the 6th moon on the 14th day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, dragons were seen fighting in the air; there was a violent wind and excessive rain; the canal rose four or five feet; many houses were destroyed, a tree above ten arms-length in circumference was torn up. [In early China, tornadoes and waterspouts were commonly described as dragons.] 166

The year 1667 produced a great harvest in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. One hok of rice (133 pounds) cost only two tsien [around 70 or 80 cash] at that time in Hukwang, China and on the right side of the river it was still cheaper. The fields did not yield enough to pay the taxes. The granaries of the rich were overflowing. They discarded the bountiful produce. Goods of every description were without purchasers. People called this the year of the “ripe dearth”. 166

1668 A.D.

On 24 July 1668, there was a flood at Sutton Pool in Warwickshire, England. At Sutton Coalfield, owing to a sudden rain, a great flood took place. The waters flowed over a stone wall 10 feet [3 meters] high. Two large pools of 20 acres each, called Windley and Bracebridge, had their dam heads both broke through the force of the water, probably occasioned by the bursting of a waterspout.212

In 1668, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 40 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 In 1668 in London, England, a small pox epidemic killed 1/9 of the inhabitants.212
In England, on the 17th of December, there was a great hailstorm with rain.57, 72, 93

In 1668, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 9 June and 8 July, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Ma-ch’êng; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Yü-t’ien; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ta-pu.

— During the period between 9 July and 7 August, floods struck Hopei province at Luan-ch’êng, Tz’ŭ, Nan-kung and Kao-ch’êng.
— During the period between 8 August and 5 September, floods struck Hopei province at Chao, Kao-i, Lin-ch’êng, Shen-tsê, An’p’ing, Yung-nien, Li and Chü-lu; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Huang-yen and Yüeh-ch’ing; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at P’ing-hsiang.

— During the period between 5 September and 5 October, floods struck Hopei province at Chiao-ho and Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Ts’ang-wu.

In 1668 during the period between 9 July and 7 August, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-an and Lo-t’ien; Chahar province (now eastern Inner Mongolia) at Huai-an and Yang-yüan; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Lung-mên. During the period between 8 August and 5 September, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Ching-hai.153

In 1668 during the 6th moon on the 14th day, there was violent wind with sudden torrents of rain in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. The river swelled four or five feet and destroyed innumerable houses. The storm was accompanied with a waterspout.166

In 1668 during the 12th moon [during winter], there was thunder and a rainbow in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166

Winter of 1668 / 1669 A.D.

During the winter of 1668-69, Captain [Zachariah] Gillam on the Nonsuch catch wintered in the southern end of the Hudson Bay in Canada. He anchored in Rupert River on the 29th of September 1668. On the 9th of December, the river was frozen up. In April 1669, the cold was almost over.292

1669 A.D.

In England, the entire year was dry.47, 72

On 20 June at Inspurg, there was a violent tempest of rain, hail, thunder and lightning. At Schwatz in northeastern Germany, the river overflowed, drowned all the neighboring fields and carried down 30 houses and drowned 200 people. In July at Holstein, Germany was a tempest with thunder and lightning, which so frightened the cattle, that many hundreds of them were lost. At Mecklenburg, Germany, there were many fires kindled by lightning in several parts of the country.72 [Inspurg might possible be Insberg which is located south of Salzburg in the Austrian Alps.]

[In the Netherlands] in 1669, the spring and early summer by the continued influence of the north wind were exceptionally cold. The months of July, August and September influenced by a west wind were intolerable hot. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 11 September.62, 72

In England on 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 August, there were severe storms of thunder and lightning.72
On 18 August 1669, there was a mighty torrent of water from Pendle Hill, which flooded the village of

Worston in Lancashire, England. The furniture floated about in the houses.212
In 1669, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 44 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
On 17 August 1669, a hurricane struck a Caribbean Island near Nevis and Cuba causing 182 deaths.141

On 1 September 1669 at Weymouth in Dorset, England, there was a very high tide. It was unusual because the weather was very calm and the little wind that was being at northeast, in the past contributed nothing at all to the tides in this haven.225

A little before 23 September 1669 in the Atlantic Ocean, a hurricane struck and several Newfoundland ships were cast away by a storm. The news was reported by a vessel from Rochel.141

Before 9 December 1669, an Atlantic hurricane struck St. Kitts in the West Indies. During the storm, 25 merchant ships and others were cast away. [Another account relates to a 19 December 1670 account that a violent hurricane lasting eight hours struck St. Christopher’s island [St. Kitts] about the end of September last. [Thus this event may have occurred in September 1669.]141

On 30 October 1669, there was a frightful hurricane of whirlwind in Northamptonshire, England.72

On 30 October 1669, a tornado passed through Ashley [Ashley Green] in Northamptonshire, England. It was 60 yards wide and was on the ground for only around 6 minutes. It took a milkmaid’s pail from off her head and carried it many score of yards distance. In one yard, it threw over a wagon breaking off the wheels and axles, and blowing three of the wheels over a wall. It demolished the roof of the parsonage.195

In 1669 during the period between 28 June and 27 July, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at San-shui, Mao-ming, Tung-kuan and Hua; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Fang. At Fang, house and fields were damaged by the floodwaters. During the period between 28 July and 25 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Taichow.153

Winter of 1669 / 1670 A.D. In England in 1669, the frost was severe with some remissions.47, 72, 93 In 1670 between 25 January and 11 February, there was frost in England.72

In 1669 at Christmas in England, there was a hard frost. Another account reported that on 26 December 1669 in London, England, there was a great cold spell, freezing quickly for several days. After which there was a great snow. This cold spell was much colder than the winter of 1665 and the winter of 1666. 212

In 1670,

The frost [in England] was most intense this winter.212

In 1670, the winter was intensely cold. The Little and Great Belts were frozen, and many people perished. [The Great Belt in Denmark (Danish: Storebælt) is a strait between the main Danish islands of Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The Little Belt separates Fyn from Jylland.]1

In 1670, the cold was intense throughout Europe.30
In 1670, sleighs traveled safely across the Little and Great Belts.62

The winter in 1670 was severe in Europe. The Great and Little Belts were traveled by sleigh without any danger. The Danube River was frozen so hard that it carried people, horses and wagons. In Italy and France, there was severe cold. The extreme cold [in France] during January and February destroyed a large number of trees.62

The Academy of Sciences compares the cold from 1669-70 in northern France to the winters of 1608 and 1709. Rigor, in January and February, killed lots of trees.79

In Prussia in 1670, the waters of the Rhine River frozen at Coblentz [now Koblenz in west-central Germany] from the 11th to 17th of January, so that the artificers (artistic craftsman) exercised their several trades upon the ice (ice fair on the Rhine).47, 93

The winter was most severe, especially about the end of January, when a great flood was the next night followed by such a frost, that the Danube River was frozen so hard in one night, the it carried the weight of men, horses and carts. Whether the flood or the frost did the most damage is hard to determine for both killed multitudes of people.72

1670 A.D. In Bridgewater (Somerset), England, there were great floods on October 9.47, 72, 92 another flood in England on March 10.72

On 7 October 1670, a hurricane drove all the fleet on shore in the harbor [Île à Vache, Haiti], except [the bloodthirsty pirate Henry] Moran’s vessel, all of which, except three, were got off again and made serviceable.143

In 1670, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 41 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212
On 13 October 1670, there was a very violent gale at Braybrook in Northamptonshire, England. It was

only 6 yards wide. [This most likely refers to a tornado event.]212
On 13 October 1670, there was a frightful hurricane of whirlwind in Northamptonshire, England.72 The year 1670 was hot and dry in southern France.79

In 1670, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ing-p’u; Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Ch’üan-chiao, Wu-ho and Fêng-yang; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Po-yeh; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at P’u-ch’i, Chung-hsiang, Ying-ch’êng, Ch’ung-yang and Chih-chiang; and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ningpo and Shang-yü; and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ningpo, Shang-yü and Hu-chou. At Hu-chou, innumerable people and cattle drowned and innumerable houses damaged by the floodwater.153

In 1670, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a severe drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at P’u-yang, Tung-ming, Li, Kuang-p’ing, Jên, Wu-ch’ing, Ta-ch’êng, Ching, Ch’ing-yün, Ling-shou, Sha-ho, Tz’ŭ and Ta-ming. The drought damaged the crops.
— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Tung-yang and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Lo-t’ien.
— During the period between 8 November 1670 and 5 February 1671, a severe drought engulfed Hupeh province at Tsao-yang and An-lu; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Tê-an.153

Winter of 1670 / 1671 A.D. During the winter of 1670-71, Captain [Zachariah] Gillam on the Nonsuch catch wintered in the southern end of the Hudson Bay in Canada. The ice began in Rupert River on the 10th of October, but they had warm weather after that. The river was frozen over the 6th of November. The snow that year was 7 or 8 feet thick [2.1-2.4 meters]. On the 1st of February, there was an abrupt change of weather that it rather thawed than froze. About the 20th of March it began to thaw and the river was thawed on the 20th of April.292

1671 A.D.

In Dijon, France in 1671, the grape harvest began on 16 September.62
In 1671, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 42 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In December 1671 in London, England, there was the thickest and darkest fog ever known in the memory of man.212

[In England], there were tempests or thunder, rain and wind on 3 & 12 September, 2 November, and 30- 31 December.72

In 1671, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at T’ung-hsiang. This drought was severe.
— During the period between 8 November 1670 and 5 February 1671, a severe drought engulfed Hupeh province at Tsao-yang and An-lu; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Tê-an.
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Pa and Hupeh province at Kung-an and Shih-shou.
— During the period between 9 May and 6 June, a severe drought engulfed Hunan province in south- central China at Lung-shan and Hupeh province at Huang-an, Ma-ch’êng and Kuang-chi.
— During the period between 7 June and 1 November, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang province at Chin-hua and Hu-chou.
— During the period between 6 July and 4 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Ningpo, Hsiang-shan, Ning-hai, T’ien-t’ai, Hsien-chü, Hu-chou and Lan-ch’i.
— During the period between 5 August and 2 September, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Ch’i-ho; Hopei province at Tung-ming, Hsing-t’ai, Kuang-p’ing, Jên, Ch’êng-an; and Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Chiang-p’u, Soochow and T’ai-ts’ang.
— During the period between 3 September and 2 October, a drought engulfed Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ai-hu; Hopei province at Hsin-ch’êng and T’ang-shan; and Chahar province (now eastern Inner Mongolia) at Yang-yüan and Huai-an.
— During the period between 3 October and 1 November, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang province at Shao-hsing.

In 1671 during the period between 5 August and 2 September, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Sung-tzŭ and I-tu. During the period between 3 September and 2 October, floods struck Mu-yang [uncertain name]; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wên-an and Hsü-shui; Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Chi-ning; and Hupeh province at Shih-shou.153

In 1671 during the 4th moon on the 11th day, there was excessive rain in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. In the next month the rains came again but with violent winds, which tore up trees and leveled houses. This storm continued for three days and nights. The next day, there was a freshet [flood]. Later that year, there was a famine.166

Winter of 1671 / 1672 A.D. On 9-11 December 1671, a storm of freezing rain struck Bristol, England causing vast destruction of trees about Bristol, Wells, Shepton-Mallet, Bath and Burton. There was no ice on any water but the rain froze as it fell. A branch from an ash tree weighed 3⁄4 pounds [0.3 kilograms] had 16 pounds [7.3 kilograms] of ice on it. The ice being five inches [13 centimeters] in circumference on the branch. The trees along the highway from Bristol to Shepton were all thrown down. Also at Burton, the roads were all blocked up by fallen trees. The same ice storm struck Oxford. This weather was immediately followed by great heat. The bushes and the flowers were as forward as usually seen in

April. An apple bloomed before Christmas.212

Freezing rain fell in Somersetshire, England on 9-11 December 1672 [1671]. It made incredible destruction of trees in all the villages and highways from Bristol towards Wells, and towards Shepton- Mallet, and towards Bath and Bruton, and other places of the west. A sprig of an ash tree of just three quarters of a pound, which was brought to my table, the ice on it weighed 16 pounds, besides what was melted off by the hands of them that brought it. Even though the trees and hedges were loaded with ice, there was no ice on the rivers or standing pools of water. Some travelers were almost lost [died] from the coldness of the freezing air and freezing rain. All trees, young and old, on the highway from Bristol to Shepton, were so thrown down on both sides of the ways, that the road was unpassable [impassable]. Due to similar obstructions, the [mail/newspaper] carriers of Bruton were forced to return back. Some told me that riding on the snowy downs, they saw this freezing rain fall upon the snow, and immediately freeze to ice, without sinking at all into the snow, so that the snow was covered with ice all along, and had been dangerous, if the ice had been strong enough to bear them. Many travelers were stranded on the roads during their journey and were in great distress. On the 8th much snow had fallen. The incidences of freezing rain seemed to vary by elevation. The frost was very fierce and dangerous on the tops of hills and plains. On 11 December, one young man returned from a 5 mile journey, as he entered a warm room, he cried out in extreme torment in all parts of his body because of the unsufferable insufferable] cold. After these frost were over, there was an excessive heat wave. As a result an apple tree blossomed before Christmas. On New-Years-Tide, this apple tree bore apples as big as one’s finger end. This freezing rain also affected the countryside around Oxford. And when the heat wave came, green apples were observed in diverse trees, particularly in the parish of Holywell.234

On 8 December [1671] fell a great snow. On 9 December, there was much rain, which swept off the snow. On 10 December, sudden fits of cold and warmth. Some travelers were almost lost by the freezing air and rain. Trees young and old, were torn and broken down; for the freezing rain falling on the freezing snow on the boughs, and presently turning to ice, broke down the trees. This frost was the same in Oxfordshire as in Somersetshire, a raining of ice or rain freezing as it fell and succeeded by the like heat. Great was the damage done to exotic plants by this and the frosts of 1683, 1684, 1709, 1716 and 1740.72

1672 A.D.

The winter [in France] was severe and the cold weather lasted for three months.62

In May 1672, the drought lowered the water in the l’Yssel [sometimes called Gelderse l’Jssel River in eastern Netherlands] and the Rhine River [in Germany]. The river was fordable on one arm of the river at several locations. This allowed the army of Louis XIV, to cross the river on June 5.79

In 1672, several great and violent rains fell in many parts of England in summer and harvest and washed away both corn [grain] and soil of many great fields. After this [winter], very long heats, causing excessive sweating both by day and night. Trees budded, flowers appeared as in April or May. On 2 September, there was shocking thunder and lightning at Leeds in West Yorkshire in north-central England.72

In 1672, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 41 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1672, an epidemic of measles prevailed in London, England.212

On 2 September 1672, there was a thunderstorm at Leeds, England.212

[In England], there were tempests on 24-25 July, 2 September, 29 October, 19-20 December and 28 December. Some tempests produced great tides.72

In 1672 during the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Jui-ch’êng and Chieh. During the period between 27 April and 26 May, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Fu-shan. During the period between 27 May and 24 June, a severe drought engulfed Shantung province at Kao-mi. During the period between 21 September and 20 October, a drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Lin-ch’ü.153

In 1672, floods struck Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at Chungking, Chung, Fêng-tu and Sui-ning; Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh and Mêng-shan; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Jên. During the period between 25 June and 23 July, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at I-hsing and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou. Houses were damaged by the floodwaters. During this same time period, floods also struck Chekiang province at Hangchow; Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ying-tê; Hopei province at Hsing-t’ai; Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at I-tu, Ch’ien-chiang; and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ai-p’ing.153

In 1672 during the 7th moon, there was a great drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166

1673 A.D.

[In England] on 25 May and 23 June, there were terrible storms of thunder and lightning.72

[In England], there were several tempests, which occurred on: 16 February, May 25 (rain, thunder, lightning), June 23 (rain, a spout), September 10-11, and October 11.72

At Hartshead in Yorkshire, England, an inundation struck on 11 September.40, 41, 43
In England in 1673, the year was cold and full of rough days. The harvest was late and the yield was

poor. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest only took place on 5 October.62

In England, 1673 was a cold unseasonable bad year, and a very late lean harvest.72

In 1673, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 46 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1673, an Atlantic hurricane struck off the coast of Puerto Rico. A warship was wrecked but most of the (500) pirates made it ashore to Puerto Rico [alive].141

In 1673 during the period between 14 July and 11 August, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Kao-yao; Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Ts’ang-wu, Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Szŭ; and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tsinan.153

In 1673 during the period between 5 February and 8 November, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Chieh-yang. During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung province at Hui-lai. During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Yang-hsin. During the period between 10 October and 8 November, a severe drought engulfed Kwangtung province at Kao-ming and Hsing-ning.153

In 1673 during the 7th moon on the 20th day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a hailstorm. The hailstones were two or three catties weight, killing horses and oxen. [A catty or Chinese pound was

historically about 605 grams weight. Therefore these individual hailstones weighed around 2.7 to 4.0

pounds.] 166

Winter of 1673 / 1674 A.D. The Zuiderzee is completely frozen; 16 March we crossed it on foot, on horseback and sleigh on the ice between Stavoren and Enkhuizen in the Netherlands.62 [Stavoren is a town in Friesland on the coast of then Zuyder/Zuidersea, now the Ijsselmeer Lake. Enkhuizen is now in North Holland also on but the opposite side of the Ijsselmeer Lake. Today, a ferry for pedestrians and cyclists operates between Stavoren and Enkhuizen.]

The winter of 1674 was remarkable in Holland [now the Netherlands] because of its severity and because of the late arrival in February. On 4 April we skated on the sea at Haarlem, the Netherlands.62 [Haarlem is in the peninsular region of North Holland.]

[In Europe] near Marienburg and Borussia on 5 February, there was a severe frost, which lasted to 25 March. [In England] this year, it snowed 11 days together.72 [Marienburg could be Malbork in northern Poland, during this time period the Polish province of West Prussia. Borussia is a Latin name for Prussia.]

1674 A.D.

[In England] there was a tempest on 7 & 10 April 1674.72

On 7-8 May 1674, there was a great flood on the rivers Trent and Tame in England.212

In 1674, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 68 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1674, an epidemic of smallpox was very violent in London, England. It destroyed 1/8th of the people.212

In 1674, a great storm of whirlwinds [tornados], thunder, lightning and hailstones of prodigious bigness struck Holland [the Netherlands]. At Amsterdam, many trees were tore up by the roots, ships sunk in the harbor, boats in the channels, houses beaten down, and several people were snatched from the ground as they walked the streets, and thrown into the canals. The great and ancient Cathedral Church at Utrecht was torn in pieces by the violence of the storm and utterly destroyed. The vast pillars of stone that supported it were wreathed like a twisted club. Hardly any church or house in the town escaped the violence. France and Brussels [in Belgium] also suffered infinite damage from this storm.209

[In England], the summer and harvest were mostly rainy and unequal. September and October were hot.72 On 21 December 1674, a northwest gale struck Tarbut [Tarbert], Scotland. Whole forests were torn up by

the roots.212
The Camargue [river delta] in France was covered by the floodwaters of the Rhône River in 1674.79 Thunderstorms or rainstorms desolated Provence, France in 1674.79
On 10 August 1674, a hurricane struck Barbados in the Lesser Antilles causing 200 deaths.141

On 10 August 1674, a hurricane struck Barbados in the Lesser Antilles blowing down 200 houses, and destroying the plantations, so that the inhabitants made but little sugar the two succeeding years. Eight ships were wrecked in the harbor, and 200 persons killed.143

In 1674 during the period between 6 April and 5 May, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Soochow and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Pa. During the period between 4 June and 3 July, floods struck Hopei province at Jên; Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’iung-shan. At Ch’iung-shan, houses were damaged by the floodwaters and innumerable people and cattle were drowned.153

In 1674, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Honan (now Henan province) in central China at Hsü-ch’ang and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Fei, Yüeh-ling and T’an-ch’êng.
— During the period between 6 May and 3 June, a drought engulfed Shantung province at Tsinan.
— During the period between 4 July and 1 August, a drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-yu and Shantung province at Kuan-t’ao and Ên.
— During the period 2-30 August, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Yün, Huang-an, Ma-ch’êng, Lo-t’ien.

Winter of 1674 / 1675 A.D. The winter of 1674-75 in Ireland was very mild and warmer than expected with very little rain. It did not rain more than 2 or 3 times in February. During the past 2 or 3 years, Ireland had scarcely any frosts or snow. But [the decade or two] before then it was not unusual to have frost and deep snows of a fortnight [2 weeks] and some that continued for 3 weeks and there were great rivers and lakes frozen completely over.234

1675 A.D.

[In England] on 24-25 May, there was a terrible storm of thunder and lightning.72
[In England], there were tempest on 24-25 May (thunder & lightning), and 26-27 December (with

hurricane).72

On 10 September 1675, a hurricane struck Barbados in the Lesser Antilles causing greater than 200 deaths.141

In Burgundy, France in 1675, the grape harvest began on 14 October.62

In November 1675, a storm so violent struck Holland [the Netherlands] and caused several breaches in the great diques [dikes] near Enchusen and others between Amsterdam and Harlem [now Haarlem]. Forty-six vessels were cast away at Texel and almost all the men drowned. These breaches caused a great inundation, which caused much damage. Many people, cattle and houses were lost.209

In England, the summer was exceedingly rainy. The harvest was very unequal, like the months of March and April, sometimes clear; sometimes cloudy or rainy. The winter of this year was not so severe. There was neither rain nor snow. A north wind in spring made intermittents very rife.72

In 1675, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 61 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

Lightning can change the polarity of magnets. “Towards the year 1675 two English vessels went together on a voyage from London to Barbadoes [Barbados]. Near the Bermudas, lightning broke the mast of one of them and tore the sails; the other received no damage. The captain of the second vessel having remarked that the first turned about and appeared to wish to return to England, asked the cause of this sudden determination, and learnt, not without astonishment that his companion thought he was following the route as at first. An attentive examination of the compasses of the vessel that had been struck showed them that the fleur de lys, or arrowhead, which usually stands on the compass-card for the north-pointing

pole now indicated the south; so that the poles had been completely reversed by the lightning. It

continued in this state during the whole remainder of the voyage.” 271

In 1675 during the period between 23 July and 20 August, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Wu-ho and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Hsin-ch’êng, Su-ning and Li. During the same period of time, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hai-ning. During the period between 21 August and 18 September, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-an and Lo-t’ien. Then during the period between 19 September and 18 October, floods struck Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Ts’ang-wu.153

In 1675 during the 6th moon, there was great wind and a flood in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Then during the 10th moon, there were protracted rains.166

Winter of 1675 / 1676 A.D. The winter of 1675-76 in Ireland was very fair or rather no winter at all. There were only 5 or 6 mornings with frost this winter and the frost lasted no longer than noon. It snowed only 3 times. The first snow occurred before Christmas, the second on 11 January, and the third on 17 January. The last snowfall was the longest; it continued less than 48 hours but thawed. There were only 2 or 3 rainy days during the winter. On 14 March, there was a shower of rain and hail.234

1676 A.D.

On 23 May 1676, the French ship Le Vansour sails along the coast of the island Tristan da Cunha located about midway between Africa and South America, and observed the peak on the main island was covered with snow.105

In 1676, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 38 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

On 16 June 1676, a hailstorm struck Dunstal [Dunstall] in Staffordshire, England. The hailstorm was 11⁄2 miles [2.4 kilometers] long and 1⁄4 mile [0.4 kilometers] broad. The hailstones were 4 inches [10 centimeters] about [in circumference] and of unequal and various shapes.212

[In England] on 19 June, there was a terrible storm of thunder and lightning.72 [In England] on 9 August, there was a tempest with great wind and high tides.72 [In England], the summer was exceedingly cold.72
In Dijon, France in 1676, the grape harvest began on 9 September.62

On 20 September 1676, a violent storm struck the coast of New England in what was to become the United States. It cause ships to sink and coastal damage. One of the ships placed in peril by the storm was a ketch, of about seventeen tons burden, commanded by a sea captain Ephraim Howe. During the storm, the ship lost a rudder and as a result any means of controlling the vessel. It floated aimlessly out to sea for three months. Over half the passengers and crew died of exposure. The ship finally struck a reef off the coast of Cape Sable in Nova Scotia. The survivors made their way onto an uninhabited desolate island. They were finally rescued and returned to Salem, Massachusetts on 8 July 1677, ten months after they left Boston.199

In 1676, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 14 February and 13 March, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Ch’ien-chiang, Ku-ch’êng and I-ch’êng. At I-ch’êng, houses and crops were damaged by the floodwaters and people and cattle were drowned.

— During the period between 11 June and 10 July, floods struck Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Pai-ho; Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Mêng-shan, P’ing-yüeh and Ts’ang-wu; and Hupeh province at Ao-ch’êng, Ta-yeh, P’u-ch’i, Huang-p’o, Hsiao-kan, Mien-yang, Kuang-chi, I-ch’êng and Tien-mên.

— During the period between 11 July and 8 August, floods struck Kwangsi province at Huai-chi; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Soochow, Ch’ing-p’u, Wu-chiang and Hsiao; and Hupeh province at Huang-kang, Chiang-ling, Chien-li and Kuang-chi.
— During the period between 7 October and 5 November, floods struck Kiangsu province at Suchow; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Nan-yüeh.

In 1676 during the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Hsing-ning [uncertain name].153

Winter of 1676 / 1677 A.D. The Seine River in France was frozen for thirty-five consecutive days from 9 December 1676 to 13 January 1677.38, 60 The Maas (Meuse) River remained frozen from Christmas until the 15th of January.62

In 1676 in Paris, France, there were 35 days of frost.58, 80
Extreme cold reigned from 2 December 1676 to 13 January 1677 in northern France. The earth was

covered with snow, and the river remained frozen thirty-five days.79

This winter was very severe in France. Particularly intense was the cold from 2 December 1676 until 13 January 1677. “Thirty-five consecutive days the earth was covered with snow and the Seine River frozen. Then came wet weather. In February we had a few mild frosts and frequent rains. The same weather conditions prevailed in March. The sky was almost completely overcast. The beginning of April was still cold and wet, but around the middle of the month, the temperature was mild, but soon afterwards came the cool weather again which held until 22 May.” On the frozen river Meuse, they travelled from Christmas to 15 January with heavily laden wagons over the ice.62

1677 A.D.

[In England] on 1 June and on 8 & 29 July, there were terrible storms of thunder and lightning.72

[In England], there were tempests on 11 August (of wind) and 1 & 29 June (of rain, hail, thunder, lightning and wind).72

In 1677, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 42 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

[In 1677, Richard Towneley made the first regular measurement of rainfall in the north of England.] In Townley [Towneley Hall] in Lancashire, England the rainfall of January was 4.7 inches [12 centimeters]; of June 5.2 inches [13 centimeters]; of August 4.8 inches [12 centimeters]; of November 4.3 inches [11 centimeters]; of December 4.0 inches [10 centimeters]; whole year 43.6 inches [1.1 meters].212

In 1677, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 4 March and 1 April, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-yu, Suchow and Hsiao.
— During the period 2-30 May, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Ch’ien-chiang and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Wang-chiang.
— During the period between 30 July and 27 August, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Ho-chien, Jên and Chi-tsê; Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of

China at An-ch’iu; Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’in; and Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Ts’ang-wu, Hêng and Kuei-p’ing.

In 1677 during the period between 3 May and 27 August, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Wan-tsai.153

In 1677 during the 6th moon, there was a flood in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166
During the winter of 1677, there was a thunderstorm with snow [thunder-snow] in the vicinity of

Shanghai, China.166

1678 A.D.

In England on the 18th of January, there was a great hailstorm.57, 72, 93

[In England] on 19 January and 11 August, there were terrible storms of thunder and lightning.72

[In England], there were tempests on 19 January (thunder and lightning), on 22 March and 8 October.72

In Middlesex, England, there were considerable floods on 11 June.47, 72, 92 another flood in England in September.72

In England, the year was all dry, hot and clear.47, 72

In England, the wind for the last two years and now [1678] having kept mostly north-northeast and east and sometimes northwest but mainly north the whole spring. Summer and harvest was droughty, hot and clear.72

In the beginning of July 1678, after some gentle rainy days, which had not swelled the waters of the River Garonne more than usual, one night the river swelled all at once so mightily, that all the bridges and mills above Toloufe [Toulouse in southwestern France] were carried away. In the plains which were below the town, the inhabitants who built in places which by long experience they had found safe enough from any former inundation, were by this surprised, some were drowned, together with their cattle, others only saved themselves by climbing trees or getting to the tops of houses. Others who were looking after their cattle in the field were warned by the horrible noise and furious torrents of water and fled but could not escape without being overtaken. At the exact same time the two rivers of Adour and Cave, which fall from the Pyrenæan Hills [Pyrénées Mountains], as well as the Garonne, and some other little rivers of Gascoygne, which have their source in the plain, as the Gimone, the Save, and the Rat, overflowed in a similar manner and cause the same devastation. This flood was believed primarily due to the release of subterraneous waters. This observation was derived from the mineral content of the water and the formation of new river channels in the mountains formed by the furious torrents, which tore up the trees, earth, and great rocks.234

In 1678, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 59 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
In England, there was a frost from the 9th of December to the 9th of February, with one remission.47, 72, 93

In 1678, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at T’ai-an and Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Tung-liu, Shou, Ch’üan-chiao and Wu-ho.

— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at T’ung-hsiang; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Chia-ting; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-kang.
— During the period between 16 September and 15 October, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Chin-hua; Kiangsu province at Kao-ch’un; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsiu-shui [uncertain name, “Ning”].

In 1678, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 20 May and 18 July, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Lung-ch’uan and Ho-p’ing; and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou.
— During the period between 19 July and 16 August, floods struck Kwangtung province at Ch’in and Hui-lai; and Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at Sui-ning and Ho-chiang.
— During the period between 17 August and 15 September, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Jên and Hsing-t’ai; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Hsiao and Suchow; Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Yen-ch’ang; and Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh.

In 1678 during the 5th moon, there was a hailstorm in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166 1679 A.D. [In England], October was a month of continued rains.72

[In England], there were tempests on 10-11 February (wind), 8 July, 6 August (rain, thunder and lightning).72

In 1679, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 60 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
In 1679, it was very hot in England and Scotland. There was no rainfall beginning in May and all

summer.212

In 1679, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Soochow, K’un-shan, Ch’ing-p’u, Shanghai, Wu-chin and I-hsing. This drought was severe. Creeks dried up.
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Man-ch’êng.
— During the period between 10 May and 7 June, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hangchow.
— During the period between 8 June and 4 October, a severe drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-an, Lo-t’ien, I-tu, Ma-ch’êng and Kung-an.
— During the period between 8 July and 5 August, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Yeh and P’ing-tu.
— During the period between 6 August and 4 September, a severe drought engulfed Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Ho-fei, Lu-chiang, Ch’ao, Wu-wei, Shu-ch’êng and Tang-t’u.
— During the period between 5 October and 2 November, a severe drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Lin.

The year 1679 was a very scarce year in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. This scarcity was caused by a drought.166

In 1679 during the period between 9 August and 4 September, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at An-kuo and Su-ning. During the period between 5 September and 4 October, floods  struck Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Nan-chêng and Hupeh (now Hubei province) incentral China at Ch’ien-chiang. At Ch’ien-chiang, the dikes were damaged.153

1680 A.D.

[In England] on 11 February 1680, there was an irregular tide when the sea flowed three times

in 5 hours.72
In Oxford, England in June, there were great floods.47, 72, 92

On 26 June 1680, there was a monstrous inundation near Londonderry, Ireland. It was believed that this inundation came from the release of subterraneous waters imbedded in the hills and from whence the waters gushed forth.234

In England, the summer was hot and dry.47, 72
The summer of 1680 was extremely hot in England. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 9

September. This year was a good grain market in France.62

In 1680, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 45 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1680, 1720, 1739 and 1740 [in Europe], storms of hail of one foot thickness fell.190

In Ireland, there was “an inundation near Londonderry.” 47, 92 [Londonderry is located in Northern Ireland near Lough Foyle.]

In Breslaw [now Wrocław in southwestern Poland], there was great heat during the summer.72

On 3 August 1680, a hurricane struck Martinique Island in the Caribbean Sea. During the violent hurricane over twenty large French ships and two English ships were totally lost in Cul-de-Sac Bay and the loss of life was great.141

On 15 August 1680, an Atlantic hurricane struck the Dominican Republic. The storm submerged many vessels including 25 ships of France, causing the death of most. Several Spanish ships were also lost as well.141

[In England] on 13 September, there was a terrible storm of thunder and lightning.72
[In England], there were tempest on 30 January, 28 February, 18 June, 24 August and 23 September (rain,

thunder and lightning).72

In 1680, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 26 June and 25 July, floods struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Kuang-chi, I-tu and I-ch’ang; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at I-hsing and Wu-chin; and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Fu-shan, I-shui, Mêng-yin and T’êng.
— During the period between 26 July and 23 August, floods struck Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsia-chiang and Hupeh province at I-ch’ang and I-tu.
— During the period between 24 August and 22 September, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou.

In 1680 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Li. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed

Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Lien,

K’ai-chieh and Wêng-yüan.153

In 1680, there was a great drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. There was no rain from 3rd to 8th month.166

Winter of 1680 /1681 A.D. [In England], the winter was a long severe frost and an intense cold. The summer was excessively hot.72

In 1680 in England, the frost was long and hard.47, 72, 93
The winter was intensely cold in Europe. The Little and Great Belts in Denmark were frozen, and many people perished.1

This year the cold was so severe as to split whole forests of oak trees.30
In 1680 in southern France, the cold kills all the olive trees.79
ocumented North America. The following is a passage from his memoirs providing an account of the travels of Moncacht-Apè [name translates to “the killer of pain and fatigue”], a civilized Indian of Louisiana from the tribe of Yazoo: “Having lost my wife and children, I resolved to travel, in order to discover our original country [ancestral roots], notwithstanding all the perswasions [persuasions] of my parents and relations to the contrary. I took my way, by the high grounds that are on the eastern bank of the river of St. Louis, that I might only have the river Ouabache [Wabash River] to cross in order to join the Illinois, at the village of Tamaroua [near the site of East St. Louis, Illinois], a considerable settlement of the Canadian French. As the grass was short [These countries are all either woods, or vast plains or meadows, and when the grass of these meadows is long, travelling through them is very troublesome and fatiguing.] I arrived there in a little time. I stayed there 8 days to rest myself, and then continued my rout [route] along the eastern bank of the same river St. Louis, till I was a little above the place where the river Missouri falls into it. I then made a raft of canes, or reeds, and cross’d the river St. Louis, and when I was near the opposite side, I suffered my raft to be carried down the stream till I came to the conflux of the two rivers. Here I had the pleasure of seeing the rivers mix, and of observing how clear the waters of the river St. Louis are, before they receive the muddy streams of the Missouri. I landed her, and travell’d along the north side of the Missouri for a great many days, till at last I came to the nation of the Missouris; with them I stay’d a considerable time, not only to repose myself after my fatigues, but also to learn their language, which is spoken or understood by a great many nations. In this country one scarce sees any thing but large meads [meadows], above a days journey over, and cover’d with large cattle [buffalo]. The Missouris seldom eat any thing but flesh [meat], they only cultivate as much maiz [maize, corn] as may serve for a change, and prevent their being cloy’d [cloyed, sickened with an excess of] with beef and game, with which their country abounds. During the winter which I spent with them, the snow fell to the depth of 6 feet [1.8 meters].” 299 [It is believed that Moncacht-Apè journey across the continent occurred in the second half of the 17th century. I have arbitratively placed this account in the year 1680.]

On 30 December 1708, the temperature at Upminster [a suburban town in east London, England] fell to 1° F [-17.2° C].300

During the period between 21 December 1680 and 19 January 1681, a severe drought engulfed Chahar

province (now eastern Inner Mongolia) at Wan-ch’üan.153

1681 A.D.

[In England], there were tempest on 15 January (rain, hail) and 10-11 December.72 In England, all the spring and summer was dry.47, 72

The spring and summer of 1681 [in England] were so hot and so dry that no one remembered a state of vegetation, equal to the likes seen this year. The herbs and grasses were burned, and in the air, no trace of moisture could be detected.72 In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 9 September.62

In 1681, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 46 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1681, an epidemic of smallpox was violent in London, England. It killed 1/8th of the inhabitants.212

In England on the 1st of May, there was a great hailstorm.57, 72, 93

In 1681, a hurricane struck the western Caribbean Sea. The loss of life was considerable from several ships.141

In 1681, the island of Antigua in the Leeward Islands was desolated by a tremendous hurricane.143

In 1681, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ai-p’ing and Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Huang-yen, Hsien-chü and I-wu. Wells and springs dried up.
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at An-ch’iu.
— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Wên-chou and Ningpo. Wells and springs dried up.
— During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Fêng-hua. Wells dried up.

In 1681 during the period between 18 May and 15 June, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ang-shan and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Fêng-ch’uan. During the period between 16 June and 14 July, floods struck Chekiang province at Ch’ang-hua and T’ang-ch’i; Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chiang-ling and Chien-li; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsin-chien. In Chekiang and Hupeh provinces, innumerable people were drowned.153

In 1681 during the 5th moon, there was a flood in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Then during the 8th moon, there was a sudden torrent of rain and rise of water, which undermined and overturned part of the Shanghai walls and killed several persons.166

Winter of 1681 /1682 A.D. In the United States, on 11 December 1681, the Delaware River near Philadelphia was frozen solid in one night so as to be passable on the ice.1

1682 A.D.

In England, “Rain, hail, floods, all the summer.” 47, 72, 92
On 22 March 1682, the tide on the River Thames in London, England, ebbed and flowed three times in

four hours.212

In 1682 there was a storm and flood at Brentford, in West London, England that did much damage. The sudden flood occasioned by the tempest was so great that the whole place was laid underwater. Boats rowed up and down the streets and several houses were carried away by the force of the current.212

In 1682, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 44 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

On 6 June, at Tortorica in the Valley of Demana in Sicily, at 7 o’clock in the evening, there arose such a tempest of rain, thunder and lightning, which continued for 36 hours. At 1 o’clock the next morning, great torrents of water caused by these rains, fell down from the neighboring mountains with so great rapidity, that they carried down trees of extraordinary bulk, which demolished the walls and houses of the town. They overthrew St. Nicholas’s Church, drowned the Archdeacon and many people with him. It left only fifty shattered houses, which fell soon after. It drowned 600 inhabitants, the rest were employed in their fields about their silk, fled to the mountains where they suffered much for want of provisions. The materials carried down by the flood, were so much, that they made a bank above the water, near two miles in length, near the mouth of the river, where the Sea was deep before. Several other towns near were much damaged by it.72 [Tortorica or Tortorici in Sicilian is located in a province of Messina in Sicily, a region of Italy.]

In 1682, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chia-hsing.
— During the period between 6 June and 4 July, floods struck Chekiang province at Chien-tê; Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Fêng-ch’uan; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Chih-chiang.
— During the period between 3 August and 1 September, floods struck Chekiang province at Chien-tê; Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh and Ts’ang-wu; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Wu-chiang; Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ai-hu and Su-sung; and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tsou-p’ing.

In 1682 during the period between 6 June and 4 July, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Lien-p’ing. During the period 1-29 October, a drought engulfed Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Po-pai and Pei-liu.153

1683 A.D.

In 1683, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 40 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 In 1683, there was a flood at New Braintford [Brentford] in Middlesex, England.212
In 1683, there was a flood at Runswick in Yorkshire, England.212
In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 13 September.62

In 1683, a hurricane struck the east coast of Florida in the United States causing 496 deaths.141

In 1683, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 27 January and 25 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Chieh-yang.
— During the period between 28 March and 26 April, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Huang and Kwangtung province at Hui-lai and P’u-ning.

— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Ch’ü-wo and Shantung province at Wên-shang, Tsou and Tzŭ-yang.
— During the period between 22 August and 20 September, a drought engulfed Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ai-p’ing.

In 1683 during the period between 22 August and 20 September, floods struck Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Mêng-shan and Ts’ang-wu. During the period between 18 November and 17 December, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Kao-ch’êng; Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Shan; and Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at Ning [uncertain name].153

The year 1683 was a very productive year in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Single stems of rice had double heads, some three or four. (Specimens were rolled up, and deposited in a temple, with a written account. These circumstances became known from the discovery eighty-four years later when the temple was repaired.) 166

Winter of 1683 / 1684 A.D.

During the winter, the River Thames in England was frozen below Gravesend.1

The frost in Britain lasted for 13 weeks.2, 40

During the winter of 1683-84, there was a great frost in England. At the beginning of December, due to the extreme cold, there was fearful destruction of the trees and plants. Great oaks suffered; the bark was rifted [cracked] by the frost in the estates of Lords Weymouth, Chesterfield and Ferrars, and Sir W. Fermor. The figs killed to the ground. Elm, ash and walnuts cleft [split] by the frost, but not so much as oaks; the oaks in being cleft made a noise like a gun. Yew, holly and furze [gorse bush] in some places entirely killed and in many places lost their leaves. Rosemary, Laurustinus, Laurel, Arbutus, and Phyllyrea generally killed throughout the country. In dry mountainous places, trees escaped tolerably well. Firs and pines escaped the effects of the cold. There was great destruction of the herbs, plants, and flowers, except where covered with snow. There were coaches on the ice on the River Thames [at London]. There were shops on the River Thames until February. About 40 coaches plied for hire on the river daily. This was the longest frost on record, and the ice on the River Thames was 11 inches [28 centimeters] thick. Nearly all the birds perished. The frost lasted till 4 February. Small pox raged in London.212

In 1684, the frost in England began at Christmas and lasted 91 days, and mortality increased. Coaches drove along the Thames, which was covered with ice 11 inches [28 centimeters] in thick. Almost all the birds perished.212

On 5 January 1684, frost was very intense in London, England; the temperature was 8 degrees below zero.212 [This entry is very suspicious. That is because the Fahrenheit temperature scale was invented by Daniel Gabrial Fahrenheit in 1714. The Réaumur scale was named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first proposed it in 1730. The Celsius temperature scale was invented by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius in 1742. The Kelvin temperature scale was invented by Lord Kelvin in 1848. Other historical temperature scales were the Rankine invented in 1859; the Newton invented in around 1700; the Rømer invented in 1701; and the Delisle invented in 1732. Early temperature measuring devices called thermoscopes existed since 1593, but these instruments were very crude and without a temperature scale, “8 degrees below zero” does not carry any meaning.] [But this brings up an interesting question “How cold did it get during the winter the English Channel froze? The answer partly lies in the splitting of oak trees.] The cold (in England) was so intense that the trunks of oak, ash, walnut, and other trees, were cleft asunder, so that they might be seen through; and the cracks were often attended with

noises as loud as the firing of musketry.29 [Both France and England reported that the trees split apart with the sound like a musket shot. My property has a number of large oaks, walnuts and ash trees and even though the temperature during winter does many times fall below zero degrees Fahrenheit, I have not had the trunks of any of my trees split by the cold nor make the sound of rifle shot during the split. In the 35 years I have been here, the temperature dipped down below -20° F [-29° C] during a couple of these winters.] Shirley Loudon recorded in Good Fruit Growers, that at -47° F [-44° C], that many trees exploded in their orchard in Carlton, Oregon. Linda Runyon recorded in The Essential Wild Food Survival Guide, that at -40° F [-40° C], maple trees exploded due to the cold. Mikael Strandberg recorded that in his trip to Siberia, during the winter, “mercury will freeze solid and brandy becomes the consistency of syrup. It is so cold that trees explode, blue sparks fly from falling timber.” [The mercury solidifies (freezes) at -37.89° F [-38.83° C].] Mark Prangley reported that at -40° F [-40° C], it was cold enough for trees to explode and for mercury to freeze. My brother David Marusek who lives up in Fairbanks, Alaska and who experiences winter temperature that drop down to -50° F [-46° C] says that this indeed does happen when temperature fall below -40° F [-40° C]. In his backyard, he has a four-foot [1.2 meter] split in his spruce tree from this phenomenon. [Therefore I will suggest that the temperature in England on 5 January 1684 fell to -40°F or colder during this intense cold spell.]

[Temperatures along coastal regions are somewhat moderated by the ocean temperature whereas temperatures inland will feel the full severity of an extreme temperature fall. Thus in England, coastal regions such as London would not experience the same drop in temperatures as interior regions.]

The winter of 1683-84 was so severe in England, where it could expunge [destroy] the more defensible and such as were enclosed, it has ravaged all that lay open, and were abroad, without any mercy. Many of the older trees, especially the oaks, were damaged by cleaving or splitting due to the severe frost. Many of these trees split apart. Nor has this damage been limited to only the standing timber, but to that which has been felled and seasoned, as Mr. Shish, the master-builder in his Majesty’s Shipyard here, informed me. Some of the splits in the trees were large enough for a man to see through it, and many times the cracks came with so great a noise, that as it was related from Needwood Forest, they made such a noise, that the keepers there thought that the deer were shot by the people of the country; and that in several parts they were heard as loud as guns, some having been cruelly frightened, especially in the evenings or nights, as they have passed within the hearing of this so unexpected and surprising a noise.234

During the winter of 1683 and 1708, coaches were driven over the ice [on the River Thames in London, England] and large fires were made on the ice.235

In England, the frost of 1683 and 1684 were both the severest. One lasted for 13 weeks.72

In England, there were fairs on the frozen River Thames in 1683-84.90

In England on 9 September 1683, it was very rainy and then to the 16th, warm and pleasant, that night a great frost. This was the coldest winter in England, the longest hoar frost known in the memory of any living.72

In 1684, the River Thames at London, England froze eleven inches (28 centimeters) thick and was traversed by loaded wagons.38, 60, 80

In 1648 [misprint for 1684], the Thames River in England was covered with ice over a foot thick. Booths were erected for a fair, which was held on the river. Coaches plied to and fro on the ice as on dry land. All the French ports were closed for three or four weeks, the harbors being frozen over.63

Severe winter in England. The River Thames froze for 2 months and there was a frost fair that began on

1 January.28

From December 1683 to February 1684, the forest trees, and even the oaks in England were split by the frost. Most of the hollies were killed. The River Thames covered with ice eleven inches thick. Nearly all the birds perished.90

“The people kept trades on the Thames as in a fair, till 4 February 1684. About forty coaches daily plied on the Thames as on drye land. Bought this book at a shop upon the ice in the middle of the Thames.” 90

In England, there was a terrible frost of long continuance. “Many forest trees split. In the severe frost of 1683-84, not only oaks, but elms and ash of considerable bulk, and also walnut trees, were very much rent by the violence of the cold; oaks were most of all affected, and some split in such a manner as to be seen through, with a noise like the report of a gun. These clefts were not towards the same point of the compass.” 47, 93

 

In England, on the 20th of December, 1688 [misprint for 1683], a very violent frost began, which lasted to the 6th of February, in so great extremity, that the pools were frozen 18 inches (46 centimeters) thick at least, and the Thames was so frozen that a great street from the Temple to Southwark was built with shops, and all manner of things sold. Hackney coaches plied there as in the streets. There were also bull baiting, and a great many shows and tricks to be seen. This day the frost broke up. In the morning I saw a coach and six horses driven from Whitehall almost to the bridge (London Bridge) yet by three o’clock that day, February the 6th, next to Southwark the ice was gone, so as boats did row to and fro, and the next day all the frost was gone. On Candlemas Day (2 February) I went to Croydon market, and led my horse over the ice to the Horseferry from Westminster to Lambeth; as I came back I led him from Lambeth upon the middle of the Thames to Whitefriars’ stairs, and so led him up by them. And this day an ox was roasted whole, over against Whitehall. King Charles and the Queen ate part of it.8

A whole street of booths, contiguous to each other, was built from the Temple Stairs to the barge-house in Southwark, which were inhabited by traders of all sorts, which usually frequent fairs and markets, as those who deal in earthenwares, brass, copper, tin, and iron, toys and trifles; and besides these, printers, bakers, cooks, butchers, barbers, coffee-men, and others, who were so frequented by the innumerable concourse of all degrees and qualities, that, by their own confession, they never met elsewhere the same advantages, every one being willing to say they did lay out such and such money on the river of Thames.29

During the Great Frost of (1683–84) in England, the River Thames was completely frozen for two months; the ice was 11 inches (28 centimeters) thick at London. Solid ice was reported extending for miles off the coasts of the southern North Sea (England, France and the Low Countries), causing severe problems for shipping and preventing the use of many harbors.7 According to some sources, ice formed for a time between Dover (England) & Calais (France), with the two sides joined together.9

[One of the ways that a river freezes occurs when great mass of broken chunks of ice flow downstream and then there is an extreme drop in temperature, which then freezes these icebergs together. I believe a similar process occurred in the English Channel.]

It is also credibly attested that vast solid cakes of ice, of some miles in circuit, breaking away from the eastern countries of Flanders [now Belgium] and Holland [now the Netherlands], &c. have been by the east and north-east winds driven upon the marine borders of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk, to their no small damage.29

The London Gazette reported that in Dover on February 1: “This Road being almost clear of Ice, one of our Pacquet-Boats put to Sea yesterday with the Mails for Calais, though we cannot think they will be able to land them on that side; for from Dover Cliffs we can discern the Coast of France to be very full of ice. The Men on board the Dutch Doggers, which we told you in our last were put in here, reported that on the coast of Holland [now the Netherlands], and particularly off Sceveling, the Sea was frozen eight Leagues (24 nautical miles) from shore, and that in 16 fathom (96 feet deep) Water they had met with ice strong enough to bear, and that some of them had been upon it.” 10

From a letter by Guillaume Fillastre, monk at Fécamp, France: “Some sailors from St. Valery en Caux, setting out to go fishing, were surrounded by ice nearly three leagues (9 nautical miles) out to sea, opposite the port of Veules, from which people could see them indicating by signs the danger they were in, but could not give them any help. In this extremity, they risked returning to land on foot, across the ice; which they achieved, happily, thanks to two planks which they placed one after the other as they advanced, to serve as a bridge over the icebergs, which were by no means neatly joined.” 10

From “The World of Wonders: A Record of Things Wonderful in Nature, Science, and Art …” (London, 1869), A private letter of the date of February the 9th of that year (1684), mentions the appearance of a great deal of ice in the Channel, adding that it was reported that the ice between Dover and Calais was within about a league of joining.10

On February 9 there was sea ice in the English Channel. The ice between Dover and Calais were “joined together”.28

The frost was also very severe in Northern Europe. Ice 27 inches (69 centimeters) thick in the harbor of Copenhagen.47, 93

The winter of 1684 was excessively cold in northern France.79

Since the water in tree sap acquires greater volume when it freezes, in extreme cold, trees burst apart with a loud noise. In Strasbourg, France more fruit trees burst when the cold reaches -16° Reaumur (-20° C, -4° F). A great number of trees in France burst in the winter of 1683-84.58, 80

In 1684, the River Thames at London, England froze 11 inches thick. Loaded carts drive over it. The frost in February and March was so severe that one can almost cross all the rivers in Flanders [now Belgium] with carts.62

The winter of 1684 was so cold in the northern France, but it was mild and dry in the south.79

The winter of 1683-84 was severe in Europe. There was very severe cold in Paris, France from 11 to 17 January. During those seven days, the alcohol decreased in the bulb [alcohol thermometer] down to a point where it had not yet reached during other winters. The academics timed how long it would take wine to freeze in the open. It took 10-12 minutes time. There was an extraordinary amount of snow in the south [southern France]. The effects of the cold were very significant, especially in England. At London, the River Thames was during a large part of this time frozen so strong that huts and booths were erected on the ice and a market was held there for 14 days. From 9 January, they drove across the ice on the River Thames by carriages and wagons, and in all directions the same as on the mainland. A bullfight and a foxhunt were organized on the river, and White Hall roasted a whole ox on the ice. On the shores of England, France, Flanders [now Belgium] and Holland [now the Netherlands], the sea was frozen a few miles wide in such a way that for more than 14 days, boot packages could not enter the ports on or off. Most birds were killed; in the next summer we saw none. In the woods, many oak trees burst. The frost destroyed almost all the plants and the hopes of the peasants. Several people were victims of the

violent cold weather. As a result in the main streets of London large piles of wood were lit so that the inhabitants who were forced to flee their homes could warm up. In Holland [now the Netherlands] and Belgium in February and March, all the rivers were frozen over.62

[The dates of this entry appear to be a year off] On 5 or 6 February 1683 [1684] there was a very destructive flood throughout the whole Trent valley in England, and in many other parts, occasioned by the breaking up of a frost with much snow. The frost commenced early in September 1682 [1683] and continued without interruption till 5 February 1683 [1684]. The Trent Bridge at Nottingham, then composed of wood on stone piers, was almost completely destroyed by pieces of ice floated down the stream.212

1684 A.D. In England, the spring was dry and cold and the summer was very hot and dry.47, 72
In England, the summer was intensely hot and dry, and preceded by a very cold severe winter, and

droughty spring.72

In 1684, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 44 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

Jean-Dominique Cassini ranked the year 1684 among the warmest in an array spanning 82 years of great heat in Paris, France. Cassini developed a Fahrenheit thermometer, which he placed against the window of the tower northeast of the Observatory. He took his measurements between noon and three o’clock each day. The summer of 1684 produced sixty-eight days of a temperature of 77° F (25° C), sixteen days of a temperature of 87.8° F (31° C), and three days of a temperature of 95° F (35° C).79

The summer of 1684 was the first hot summer, over which we have thermometric data. In England, it was preceded by a very harsh winter and a wet spring. The summer was hot and dry. In France, the drought was exceptionally severe. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 4 September. In Paris, France there were:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

68 days 16 days 3 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

These peaks occurred on 10 July and on 4 & 8 August.62

In 1684 during the period between 15 February and 14 March, floods struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ung-ling and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Liao-ch’êng. During the period between 14 May and 12 June, floods struck Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at Ning [uncertain name]; Shantung province at Hsin and Kuang-jao; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Kao-ch’êng.153

In 1684 beginning during the 1st moon, there began steady rainfall for five months in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. This rain damaged the wheat crop.166

In 1684, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 13 June and 8 October, a drought engulfed Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at P’êng-shui and Pi-shan.
— During the period between 12 July and 10 August, a drought engulfed Szechwan province at P’êng-an and Lin-shui; Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hêng-fêng [uncertain name,

“Hsing-an”]; Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Hanyang; Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at An-i; Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Hsün-yang and Sui-tê; and Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at T’ien-shui.
— During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Hsing-t’ai, Tsao-ch’iang, Huo-lu and Ching-ching; and Szechwan province at Fêng-tu, Sui-ning and Wu-shan. Wells dried up.

Winter of 1684 / 1685 A.D. The winter in England in 1684-85, was a little short of the previous winter either in severity or duration.72

In 1684 during the 12th moon [winter], It was excessively hot, like summer in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. At night, there were heavy peals of thunder, with torrents of rain.166

1685 A.D. In 1685, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 46 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1685, there was a flood in the historical county of Cumberland in northwest England. “Ye overflowing of Kirganton Waters in ye County Cumberland.” 212

In 1685, there was an epidemic of smallpox in London, England, where 1/9th of the population died.212 On 23 October 1685, lightning struck 2 ships, the Royal-James and the Cornation in the harbor at

Portsmouth, England.234

In 1685 during the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at An-ting [uncertain name]. During the period between 5 February and 8 August, a drought severe enough to cause wells and springs to dry up, engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Shui-an and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’ü-chiang and Yüeh-ch’ang.153

In 1685, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 3 February and 4 March, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tung-p’ing; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Jao-yang, Lin-ch’êng, Ch’ien-an, Hsien, Ho-chien and Yüeh-t’ing.
— During the period between 6 May and 8 August, floods struck Shantung province at Kao-wan; Hopei province at An-p’ing and Wu-ch’iang; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Wuchang, Huang-kang, Ch’i-shui, Ma-ch’êng, Huang-p’o, Huang-mei, Kuang-chi, Lo-t’ien, Mien-yang, Chien-li, T’ung-ch’êng, Chiang-ling, Chung-hsiang, Hsiao-kan, P’u-ch’i and Kung-an [“Kung” uncertain name, the “-an” may have been omitted by mistake].

Winter of 1685 / 1686 A.D. The winter in England in 1685-86, was a mild and warm winter with no cold weather or storms.72

1686 A.D. In Italy, during the years 1686-89 there was a great drought.47, 72 The summer of 1686 was very hot in Paris, France. There was:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

46 days 8 days 5 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperatures occurred on 19-23 June. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 4

September.62

On 25 May, there fell at Lille, a storm of prodigious hail, some stones above a pound weight. People broke one that had brown matter in it and threw it in the fire. It produced an explosion. The storm broke down trees and most glass windows and killed partridges and hares.72

On 25 May 1686 the city of Lille in Flanders [now in Belgium], was visited by a tremendous hailstorm. The hailstones weighed from a quarter pound to a full pound, and even more. One among the rest, was observed to contain in its center a dark brown matter, and being thrown into the fire, gave a very loud report [like a gunshot]. This storm passed over the city and citadel, leaving not a whole pane of glass in the windows on the windward side unbroken. The trees were broken, and some beaten down, and partridges and hares killed in abundance.191

There was a severe hailstorm in Lille, Flanders [now in Belgium] in 1686. Some of the hailstones were not only vastly large, but appeared dusky in the center. Those that came down chimneys into fires, when the icy part was melted, and this brown substance was exposed to the fire, burst with a loud report [like a gunshot].192

In 1686, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 34 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
In June 1686, a flood came down from the mountains and nearly destroyed the towns of Kettlewell and

Starbottom in Yorkshire, England.212
In 1686, there was an inundation in Yorkshire, England, when a rock opened, and poured out water to the

height of a church steeple.90, 92, 212

In June 1686, the inhabitants of Kettlewell and Starbotton in Craven, in the County of York, England, suffered a great loss by a sudden overflow of water. The towns are situated under a great hill on the east and west. The country is very mountainous and rocky. The descent of the rain after a thunderclap continued for 11⁄2 hours with extraordinary violence. The rocks on the east side opened visibly, and the water they beheld thence into the air the height of an ordinary church steeple, so that the current of water came down the hill into the respective towns, as in one entire body, and with a breast [to rise over] as if it would have drowned the whole towns. Several houses were quite demolished, and not a stone left.
Others graveled to the chamber windows. Some inhabitants were [permanently] driven from their houses. Currents of water ran through the houses. Mighty rocks descended from the mountains into the valley, and there they lay unmovable. Many fair meadows were covered with sand and stone. Household goods taken away into the great River Wharfe, and so lost, besides many quick goods [consumer goods]. Many families were quite ruined.234

In July 1688 [June 1686], the villages of Kettlevel [Kettlewell] and Starbottom [Starbotton] in Yorkshire, England were utterly destroyed. During a violent thunderstorm, an immense chasm opened in an adjacent mountain, and the mass of water that gushed from it contributed, as much as the rain, to the destruction of these towns.205

In 1686, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 21 June and 16 October, a drought engulfed Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Kung-ch’êng.
— During the period between 20 July and 18 August, a drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Ch’in and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Kao-ch’êng, Jao-yang and Chin [possibly a misprint, P’u-chou].

— During the period between 19 August and 17 September, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei

province) in central China at Hsiao-kan, Huang-an and Ma-ch’êng.

In 1686 during the period between 20 July and 18 August, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ang-shan and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Kuang-jao, Shou-kuang, Ch’ang-yüeh and P’êng-lai. During the period between 19 August and 17 September, floods struck Chekiang province at Taichow and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Chi. [Chi is located at longitude 117.24° East and latitude 40.03° North.]153

1687 A.D. “By excessive rains, and a violent storm, there happened a great inundation in Dublin in east- central Ireland, which put the lower part of the city under water, up to the first floor; so that boats plyed in the streets. At which time Essex-bridge was broken down, when a coach and horses passing over it, fell into the river, where the coachman and one horse perished.” 39

In 1687, there was a great estuary flood in the River Severn in Great Britain.150
On 3 March 1687, there was a thunderstorm at Cloyne, Ireland. The next morning the barometer read

28.4 inches, the lowest that had been before seen there.212

In Ireland, there were excessive rains; great flood in Dublin.47, 92

In England, the year was very rainy and the earth produced plenty of watery crude fruits. In summer the rivers were terribly flooded. Brooks overflowed their banks. Extraordinary tempest of rains demolished houses and buildings. Torrents carried along with them and drowned multitudes of people. At the time of ripe fruits were great swarms of gnats and insects.72

[In England], the year produced frequent tempest and hurricanes.72
In 1687, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 25 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 All summer rainy in Germany.72
In Italy, during the years 1686-89 there was a great drought.47, 72
The summer of 1687 in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

34 days 6 days 3 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperatures occurred on 29 June, 10 July and 16 August. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 29 September.62

In 1687 in England, the season was very dry and extremely hot and on 15 August, there was a waterspout seen at Hatfield in Yorkshire.212

On 15 August 1687 at Hatfield, Yorkshire, England, there was a land-spout [tornado], like those at sea [waterspout].72

[There was an inundation not caused by weather, but rather a tsunami triggered by a massive earthquake. On 10 October at 4 o’clock on Monday morning, there was a terrible shock of an earthquake, with a

horrible roaring of the Sea at Lima in central Peru. Many houses fell and killed several people. At 5 o’clock a second shock and at 6 o’clock the greatest of all. The Sea bellowed, swelled and overflowed. This city was wholly overthrown. Several seaports were flooded. By the inundation, which carried off several ships nine miles into the land, much people and cattle drowned. At one place near the seaside were found 5,000 dead bodies and more were daily cast up so that at last the number of the dead was not known.72]

In England, the frost lasted from the 8th of December to the 30th of January with some remissions.47, 72, 93

In 1687, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 6 May and 8 November, a severe drought engulfed Yin-yang [uncertain name].
— During the period between 10 May and 9 June, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Yüeh-ch’ang.
— During the period between 10 June and 5 October, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Chien-tê. The drought damaged crops.
— During the period between 8 August and 6 September, a drought engulfed Yunnan province in southwest China at Hao-ch’ing and Kwangtung province at K’ai-chien and Hai-fêng.

In 1687, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Kao-ming and Lien. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Wu-chiang and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Kao-wan.153

1688 A.D. In Italy, during the years 1686-89 there was a great drought.47, 72 The summer of 1688 in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

40 days 12 days 1 day

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperature occurred on 9 September. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 27 September.62

In 1688, there was an epidemic fever in Dublin, Ireland that lasted from July to the middle of August and in London, England that lasted from May to June.212

In Germany, spring and summer was most inconstant.72

In 1688, John Clayton wrote to the Royal Society and described his stay in Virginia in the United States. He related the following accounts of thunder and lightning storms in Virginia. Dr. A. was smoking a pipe of tobacco and looking out the window when he was struck dead [by lightning], and immediately became so stiff that he did not fall, but stood leaning in the window, with the pipe in his mouth in the same posture he was in when he was struck. Lightning generally breaks in at the gable end of the houses, and often kills persons in, or near the chimney’s range, darting most fiercely down the funnel of the chimney, more especially if there be a fire. Thunder split a mast of a boat at James Town [Jamestown]. It is dangerous when it thunders standing in a narrow passage, or between two windows. Several people have been killed in the open fields. It is incredible to tell how it will strike large oaks, shatter and shiver them, sometimes twisting round a tree, sometimes as if it struck the tree backwards and forwards. I had noted a fine spreading oak in James Town Island, in the morning I saw it fair and flourishing, in the evening I

observed all the bark of the body of the tree, as if it had been artificially peeled off, was orderly spread round the tree, in a ring, whole semi diameter was four yards, the tree in the center; all the body of the tree was shaken and split, but its boughs [branches] had all their bark on; few leaves were fallen, and those on the boughs as fresh as in the morning, but gradually afterwards withered, as on a tree that is fallen. I have seen several vast oaks and other timber trees twisted, as if it had been a small willow that a man had twisted with his hand, which I could suppose had been done by nothing but the thunder. I have been told by very serious planters, that 30 or 40 years since [1650-1660 A.D.], when the country was not so open, the thunder was more fierce, and that sometimes after violent thunder and rain, the roads would seem to have perfect casts of brimstone; and frequently after much thunder and lightning for the air to have a perfect sulfurous smell.229 [Lightning struck one of my large trees selectively peeling off the bark as it traveled down the length of the tree. When it was done, the tree had the appearance of a large candy cane.]

In 1688, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 46 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1688, there was a plague of cockchafers [also called May bug, mitchamador, billy witch, or spang beetle] in County Gallway [Galway] in Ireland. They covered the trees and clung to each other like a swarm of bees. Towards evening when they flew, they made a strange humming sound and darkened the air for 2 or 3 miles [3.2-4.8 kilometers] square. They ate up all the leaves off the trees for miles round making them as bare as in winter. Their grubs destroyed all the roots of the grass.212

In Noremberg [Nuremberg in Bavaria in southern Germany], there was a rainy cold harvest.72

In 1688, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsiu-shui [uncertain name, “Ning”]. During the period between 6 May and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Shui-an. Then during the period between 29 May and 27 June, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’ên-hai; Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Chin-ch’êng; and Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Chên-pa.153

In 1688 during the 7th moon on the 10th day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a storm [typhoon] of great wind, rain, thunder, and lightning. The next day the storm was still worse, it extended over a thousand li [around 370 miles]; destruction of life and property in every direction.166

Winter of 1688 / 1689 A.D. The winter in England was severe. The River Thames was frozen until 6 February 1689. There was a frost fair on the river.28

In the winter of 1688, in January, there was very severe frost in England. The River Thames was frozen.212

In England, there were fairs on the frozen River Thames in 1688-89.90
The winter in 1688 in Germany was very severe.62
The winter in 1688 was severely cold in Germany with great snow, followed by a sudden thaw and heat.72 1689 A.D. In Italy, during the years 1686-89 there was a great drought.47, 72

At Modena and all over Italy, for three or four years previous, there had been an uncommon drought. During the drought there were plenty of provisions. But in 1689 about the vernal Equinox [around March 20/21], there fell great rains, which returned quickly after, rendering the whole spring frightful and good

for nothing. The summer following was most rainy. About the Solstice and much more after all sorts of corn [grain] was wholly blasted and mildewed. But there were still hopes from the remains of the old store. At the beginning of September, and much more about the Equinox[around September 22/23], greater rains fell, which continued the whole month of October; so that it was with much labor and difficulty that the rivers were prevented from breaking down their banks, and drowning the country. The last two months concluded the year pleasantly.72

The summer of 1689 in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

27 days 7 days 1 day

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperature occurred on 10 August. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 27 September. “You sing the vintage of Burgundy 27 September. You reap little wine, but it was excellent.” 62

In 1689, LaHire in France began taking observations using precipitation gauges. The year 1689 ranked as the driest year for next thirty years.79

In 1689, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 30 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
In 1689, there was a famine at Londonderry in Northern Ireland. “The inhabitants glad to eat rats, tallow

and hides.” 212

Beginning on 4 October 1689, there was rainfall at Bungay in Suffolk, England that lasted till noon on 10 October. The rain was continuous except for a few hours on the 6th. This caused a great flood that overflowed the lower part of Norwich and broke down the bridges at Bungay.212

In 1689, a hurricane struck Jamaica. The hurricane was not very severe.124
In 1689, an Atlantic hurricane struck Nevis. A dreadful mortality swept away one-half of the inhabitants

of Nevis in the West Indies.141

In 1689, a drought engulfed many regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 6 May and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hsüan-p’ing. Wells and springs dried up.
— During the period between 17 June and 11 November, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Lo-t’ien, Shih-shou and Chih-chiang.
— During the period between 17 July and 14 August, a drought engulfed Chahar province (now eastern Inner Mongolia) at Wan-ch’üan; Honan (now Henan province) in central China at Hsin-an [uncertain name]; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Ching, Pao-ting, Hsien, Tung-Kuang, Chin [uncertain name, “P’u-chou”], Ch’ü-yang, Wu-ch’iang and Sha-ho.
— During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at K’ai-chien and Hupeh province at Ying-ch’êng. Rivers dried up.

In 1689 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, floods struck Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ho-yüan and Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Mêng-shan and P’ing-yüeh.153

1690 A.D. An awful snowstorm pounded Scotland. The storm lasted thirteen days and nights. During

that time nine-tenths of the sheep were frozen to death, and many shepherds lost their lives.30 In 1690 in Ireland, there was famine and disease.57, 91

In London, England on 11 January 1690: “This night there was a most extraordinary storme of wind, accompanied with snow and sharp weather; it did greate harme in many places, blowing down houses, trees, &c. killing many people. It began about 2 in the morning, and lasted till 5, being a kind of hurricane, which mariners observe have begun of late yeares to come Northward. This winter hath ben hitherto extremely wet, warm, and windy.” 29

In France there was a flood. In March 1690, the Seine River in Paris, France, at the bridge “Pont de la Tournelle” reached a height of 7.5 meters (24.6 feet) above the zero mark [the low water mark of the year 1719].71

The summer of 1690 in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

34 days 2 days 1 day

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperature occurred on 31 July. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 4 September. The summer in the area of Burgundy was very stormy. It produced a lot of wine of medium quality.62

In 1690 in Italy, there was a famine from rains.57, 72, 91

In the beginning of 1690, the rains in Italy returned much severer than before, and were almost continual. The winter had been rainy and cloudy with some little cold and snow, which melted as it fell. The beginning of March was uncommonly dry and calm. But at the Equinox [around March 20/21], the heavens seemed to open their bosom and pour out their whole great reservoir of water. By one night’s rain, all the country about Modena, Finlan, Ferraria, Mirandola, etc. were laid under water, deluged like a Sea. These cities standing up like little islands. This rainy weather continued the whole spring and summer, scarce one fair day. The wind was mostly from the north and cold. The mercury all the while stood higher in the barometer than ordinary in such a season. Frogs croaked over all the country. Fish was never more plentiful or freely eaten, from the scarcity of corn [grain]. In the beginning of June, mildew appeared on the corn again, and increased to its total destruction both on low and high grounds. Of all the products of the earth, nuts alone escaped this plague. They were uncommonly good and plentiful. At the latter end of July, the rains stopped and we had two months very dry but cold weather. Near the end of September, the rains returned again, but were moderate and useful. The last two months of the year were dry but moderately cold.72 [Modena, Finlan, Ferraria, Mirandola are all in the Emélia– Rumâgna administrative region of northern Italy. Ferraria is now Ferrara.]

In 1690, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 34 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1690 during the period between 9 May and 6 June, a drought engulfed the entire province of Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China. During the period between 6 May and 8 November, a drought engulfed Hupeh province at Chu-ch’i. During the period between 6 July and 4 August, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Yüeh-p’ing [uncertain name]. Then during the period between 3 September and 1 October floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Yü-yao, Chu-chi and Shang-yü. At Chu-chi and Shang-yü, crops were damaged by

the floodwaters. During the same time, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at

Chi and Pao-ti. [Chi is located at longitude 117.24° East and latitude 40.03° North.]153 In 1690, in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a famine from drought.166

In 1690 during the 9th moon, there was rain without clouds in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. There was no harvest that season.166

1691 A.D. In Italy, it was hot and dry.47
The summer of 1691 in Italy was too hot and no rain. The summer in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

44 days 12 days 5 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperatures occurred on 8, 9, 22, 23, and 28 August. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 17 September; 10 days earlier than the average from the years 1689-1800. There was little wine but it was of good quality. There was excessive heat and severe drought in Jamaica.62

[In England] on 26 July, there was a terrible storm of thunder and lightning.72

On 27 July 1691, there was a violent thunderstorm at Daventry in Northamptonshire, England.212

On 27 July 1691, a violent storm of thunder, lightning and rain struck in Everdon Field, near Daventry in Northamptonshire, England. Several people were at work reaping the corn [grain] in the fields when the storm appeared. The reapers, 20 in all, retreated for shelter to a quickset hedge [plant cuttings set in the ground to grow especially in a hedgerow] with a ditch by the side of it. Lightning killed 4 outright, 8 others were dangerously hurt. Of the rest, several were struck down, but recovered. One of those dangerously injured was a pregnant woman named Mary Bird. She had over her body nearly a hundred wounds, some as large as a man’s hand, on each arm one, and one on each side of her belly. Out of most of her wounds came cores, some bigger, some less. The biggest were bigger than a walnut, dry and black like leather. She had two sores on the soles of her feet, but her shoes and stockings were not touched. She sat next to those that were killed. She was sensible of the stroke, and sensible that her husband looked pale, and then swooned away. She and her husband were both blooded [had blood drained], she within an hour after and her husband eight hours after, and they bled freely. Their legs were mightily swelled before they were carried out of the field. The woman was very sore and full of pain, so that she could hardly bear any clothes to touch her. She was three weeks ill before she could rise [to her feet]. She continued ill for about a quarter of a year. No medicine used for burns did any good, but occasioned some great torment to her. The first [medicine] that they perceived to do good to her was oil of St. John’s Wort, and after the cores were coming out, the black salve [drawing salve]. She went to full term and the child she bore had no marks or blemishes [and lived a healthy life].234

In 1691, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 34 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1691 [in the Netherlands], there was a frosty dry winter; an excessive hot summer without rain. Winds were mostly east, northeast or north. The only stagnant water to be had were in the marshy countries, which was greedily drunk by thirsty parched laborers.72

n 1691 in Italy, the year was as hot and dry as the previous two years were wet and rainy. The year began with a north wind and great frost. Roads were as dusty as in August. The summer was intensely hot.72

In 1691, floods struck Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at Hsü-yung. Over 3,300 acres of land was damaged by the floodwaters.153

In 1691 during the 7th moon in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a storm and flood that damaged the crops.166

In 1691, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 29 January and 27 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Yang-ch’un.
— During the period between 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung province at Hua, K’ai-p’ing and Chieh-yang.
— During the period between 28 May and 25 June, a drought engulfed Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Chieh-hsiu.
— During the period between 25 July and 23 August, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Hsing-t’ai and Chahar province (now eastern Inner Mongolia) at Huai-an.

Winter of 1691 / 1692 A.D. The winter was awfully severe in Russia and Germany, and many people froze to death, and many cattle perished in their stalls.1

Wolves came into Vienna, Austria and attacked men and women, owing to the intense cold and hunger.30 In 1691, the wolves, driven by the cold, entered Vienna, Austria, and attacked cattle and men.90
In 1691 in Europe, the severity of the weather drove the wolves into the cities, Vienna, etc.47, 93

In 1691, the cold was so severe in Eastern Europe that packs of starving wolves entered Vienna, Austria and attacked men and women in the streets. All the canals of Venice, Italy were frozen, and the principal mouth of the Nile River in Egypt was blocked with frozen ice for a week.63

In 1691 during the 12th moon, there was snow for four or five days in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Men, horses, and animals froze to death. For half a month it was so cold that no one went abroad.166

1692 A.D. In Noremberg [Nuremberg in Bavaria in southern Germany], the winter was very wet and cold. The harvest was very cloudy, rainy and cold.72

[In Italy] in 1692, the winter was exceedingly regular and agreeable to the climate. Spring, summer and harvest the same. So was winter again neither too wet nor too dry; too hot nor too cold.72

In the spring of 1692, a deluge, called the Great Flood, occurred at Delaware Falls (Trenton, New Jersey) in the United States. The first settlers of the Yorkshire tenth in West Jersey had built on the lowlands near the Falls and had been making improvements there nearly sixteen years. This flood, caused by the melting of the snow above, almost entirely demolished their settlement. The water rose to the upper stories of some of the houses, and many people were conveyed from their homes by canoes. Two persons, in a house were swept away by the torrent and were lost. Many cattle were drowned. The inhabitants, taught by experience the evils, of which the natives had forewarned them, fixed their habitations on higher grounds.174

This year in Jamaica, the weather was very dry and hot in March, which was normally a very boisterous

rainy month. From then until 7 June, it was excessively hot, calm and dry.72

On 7 June 1692, an earthquake struck Jamaica. Within 2 minutes, most of the town of Port Royal was destroyed. The earth opened up and swallowed an abundance of houses and people. The water gushed out of the openings of the earth and people tumbled into it in heaps. Some people had the good fortune of catching hold of beams and rafters of houses, and these individuals were later saved by boats. Several ships were cast away in the harbor. The frigate Swan was carried away over the tops of sinking houses. Luckily the ship did not capsize and several hundred people retreated to this boat and were saved. Major Kelley, who was in the town at the time said that the earth opened and shut very quickly. He saw some people sink down to the middle and others sunk so low that just their heads were above ground and they were squeezed to death. The sky, which was clear before the earthquake, became in a minutes time as red and as hot as an oven. The fall of the mountains made a terrible crack, and at the same time dreadful noises were heard under the earth. The principal streets, which lay next to the key, with large warehouses and stately brick building all sunk. But part of the town near the neck of the land, which ran into the sea, was left standing. At the end of this strip of land stood the castle, which was shattered but not demolished. Then the town was struck by a large tsunami. It drove most of the ships from their anchor. Then the sea immediately went out two or three hundred yards. It left the fish dry on the land. But the sea returned two minutes later and overflowed part of the shore. After the first great shock, as many people as were able got onboard the ships left in the harbor. They dared not venture back on shore for some weeks. The aftershocks still continued. It is estimated that 1,500 people died in the earthquake. And as many more by sickness from the noxious vapors that came out of the openings in the earth. The earthquake struck the entire island of Jamaica. Two mountains, which lay between St. Jago and Sixteen- Mile-Walk joined together and stopped the current of the river, so that it overflowed several woods and savannahs. On the north side of the island, over a thousand acres were sunk with houses and people inside them and a huge lake formed. This lake latter dried up, but there were no sign of the houses. At Yellows, a great mountain split and destroyed several plantations with people. One plantation was removed a mile from where it formerly lay. Houses were destroyed or damaged all over the island. It was estimated that 3,000 people were killed with those that were lost in Port Royal.227, 234

In 1692, a severe hurricane struck Jamaica causing more than 100 deaths.141 In England, the summer was very rainy.72

In July of 1692, there were big floods in the north. In Burgundy, France, the grape harvest did not begin until 9 October. It produced little wine and a great part of it was sour. The year was barren.62

There were rains and floods in the years 1692 in northern France.79
In 1692, the summer in England was cold and there was a great deluge of rain until reaping [harvest]

time.212
In 1692, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 44 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1692, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 18 March and 15 April, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Tsou-p’ing and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Hsin-ch’êng [uncertain name] and An-hsin [uncertain name, “Hsin-an”].
— During the period between 12 August and 10 September, floods struck Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at Yüeh-shan, Mei-shan, Mien-yang, Kuan and Hsin-ching. Houses and crops were damaged by the floodwaters.

— During the period between 10 October and 7 November, river water suddenly shot up into the air.

In 1692 during the period between 16 April and 15 May, a drought engulfed Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China at Lin-t’ung. During the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Hsiao-kan. During the period between 10 October and 7 November, a drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Ch’ing-p’u [uncertain name].153

Winter of 1692 / 1693 A.D. In 1692 in Germany, the winter was extremely warm.62

1693 A.D. The year 1693 was all unseasonable in Italy. The whole winter [1692/1693] with rain, cold, frost or snow. The spring cold and almost constant rain, and north wind. The summer rainy and all corn mildewed. Harvest was intolerably hot and dry. The winter [1693/1694] was also very warm and dry.72

In Italy, the winter 1693 was cold and much snow (which is rare in Italy). The spring was cloudy and wet. The summer was temperate and showery.72

On 20 March 1693 at Oundle in Northamptonshire, East Midlands, England, there was a stormy day and a terrible tempest at night. There was great rain, winds from the southwest, and thunder with blue lightning, hail and rain most terrible.72

On 20 March 1693, there was a considerable thunderstorm at Oundle in Northamptonshire, England. The storm produced hail and [the lightning] set fire to the steeple of Oundle.212

In 1693, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 67 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212 In Italy, there was excessive scorching heat and great drought in 1693.72
In Italy, it was hot and dry.47, 72

In Sicily, after the sun entered Virgo, the heat was great and at noon intolerable. On 1 August there was the most tempestuous day of hail, rain, and thunder. After that the earthquake struck. Another quake on the 11th desolated Sicily. Of the 254,936 inhabitants; 59,963 were swallowed up or killed. Sicily, late the most fruitful, rich and beautiful island in the world was left in rubbish and desolation.72

The summer of 1693 in Italy had excessive heat at the time of harvest. In England, the heat was intense in September; and at noon it was unbearable. The summer in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days 33 days

Very hot days 9 days
[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The spring in Burgundy, France, was very cold and the grape harvest began on 27 September. It produced little wine, but the quality was good.62

In 1693 in France, there was an awful famine.57, 90, 91
[In Germany] during the beginning of the year it was very rainy; the latter part cold and frosty. The

spring and summer were excessively hot.72

In Britain and Ireland, October produced moderately warm weather, but there was some snow falling in the mountains and in the country. It turned suddenly extremely cold and was quickly followed by a hard frost for some few days at least.72

On 20 October 1693, there was a plague of locust at Marthery in Pembrokeshire, Wales. A swarm of locust was seen in the air near Dôl-gelheu [Dolgellau] in Merionettshire [Merionethshire], Wales.212

In 1693, there was an epidemic of the cold in London, England, which was very severe in October lasting 4 or 5 weeks. It also occurred in Dublin, Ireland in November where it was very severe for 4 or 5 weeks. It was also present in France, Holland [now the Netherlands] and Flanders [now Belgium].212

On 19 October 1693 in Virginia in the United States there was a most violent storm, which stopped the course of ancient channels, and opened new ones, which never existed before.72

In 1693, a dreadful storm was experienced in Virginia and the neighboring region in the United States.174 In 1693, there was such a dreadful storm in Virginia in the United States, that some rivers were stopped

up and channels opened for others that were so large as to allow them to be navigated.208

In 1693 and 1694, there were several occurrences of will-o’-the-wisp reported in Wales. About Christmas 1693 at Harlech in Merionydbshire [Merionethshire], sixteen ricks of hay and two barns which were filled with corn [grain] and other hay were set on fire by the “kindled exhalation”, which were often seen to come from the sea and lasted at least a fortnight or three weeks. It annoyed the country, as well by poisoning the grass, as firing the hay, for the space of a mile or thereabouts. Those that saw the fire, say it was a blue weak flame, easily extinguished, and that it did not the least harm to any of the men, who attempted to save their hay, though they ventured close to or sometimes into the flame. All the damage sustained occurred constantly during the night. There were three small tenements in the same neighborhood (called Tydhin Sion Wyn [Tyddyn Sion Wyn]) whereof the grass was so infected, that it absolutely killed all manner of cattle that feed upon it. The grass was so infected these three years but not thoroughly fatal till this last [year]. As of August 1694, the strange fires continued there. It was observed to come from a place called Morva Bychan [Morfa Bychan] in Caernarvonshire [Caernarfonshire], about eight or nine miles off (over part of the sea). Cattle of all sorts, as well as sheep, goats, hogs, cows, and horses still continue to die. The place where it comes is both sandy and marshy.234

In 1693, there was a dearness [scarcity] of all sorts of corn [grain] in England. Many poor people in Essex resorted to making bread from turnips.234

In 1693, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 5 February and 8 August, a severe drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hangchow, Chia-hsing and Hai-yen. The drought damaged the crops.
— During the period between 3 July and 1 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at T’ung-hsiang.
— During the period 2-30 August, a severe drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Wu-chiang, K’un-shan, Chia-ting, Ch’ing-p’u [uncertain name] and Tan-yang. Rivers dried up.

In 1693 during the period 2-30 August, floods struck Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Yang-kao; Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-yu; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Pao-ting, Peiping and Ho-chien; and along the Wu-ting River in Shensi (now Shaanxi province) in central China.153

Winter of 1693 / 1694 A.D. In 1693, in Germany and Italy, the frost was severe in November and

December.47, 72, 93
In 1693 in Europe, there was great snowfalls and frost.72

In Italy, the winter was characterized by the most severe and scarcely to be paralleled cold frost and snow.72

1694 A.D. In Italy, it was hot and dry.47, 72

In Italy, there was burning hot droughty summer in 1694, in which five months passed without one shower of rain. Then came rain in October 1694 and the weather did not become fair again before April 1695.72

In 1689, LaHire in France began taking observations using precipitation gauges. The rainfall in Paris in 1694 was 12.5 inches (318 millimeters). The year 1694 ranked just after 1689 as the driest year for thirty years.79

On 20 June 1694, there was a hailstorm in Lohja and Siuntio, Finland (about 60° 10’ N, 24° 10’ E). Window glasses were shattered. Window glass was thick in those days, so the hailstones could not have been small. The hailstones destroyed the crop entirely on 3 farms, 2/3 of the crop on another farm, 1/2 of the crop on 2 other farms and 1/3 of the crop on another farm.151

In 1694, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 64 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
On 1 August 1694, a tornado struck Warrington in Northamptonshire, England. It carried 80 or 100

shocks of corn into the air out of sight, to a distance of one, four and five miles.212

In 1694 at Topsham and Exeter, England, in Acremont Close, there was a waterspout. It lasted for 30 minutes and 3 or 4 wagonloads of corn [grain] were in the air at one time.212

On 7 August 1694 at Exeter, England, there was a land-spout [tornado], like those at sea [waterspout].72 On 27 September 1694, a hurricane struck offshore Barbados in the Lesser Antilles causing more than

1,000 deaths.141

Three weeks before 4 November 1694, a hurricane struck Barbados in the Lesser Antilles putting most of the ships in the road ashore.143

The severe sandstorm struck Scotland on 2 November 1694. The village Culbin was covered over and lost for 230 years.28 [Culbin is now Culbin Sands on the River Findhorn, on the southern bank of the Moray Firth in northern Scotland.]

From 1694-1699 in Scotland, there was a famine. In England, there was a great dearth from rains, colds, frosts, snows; all bad weather.57, 72, 91

In 1694 during the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Hsing-kuo and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Wuchang, Huang-kang, Ch’i-shui, Huang-an, Kuang-chi, Ao-ch’êng and Ta-yeh.153

In 1694, there was a great drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. This resulted in a bad harvest and a

scarce year.166
Winter of 1694 / 1695 A.D. La Hire [Philippe de la Hire] has the cold from the winter of 1694-95 in

northern France was among the most intense.79
The winter in 1695 was very harsh. La Hire’s thermometer stood the whole time of the frost at 15° to

20° F (-12.1° to -8.5° C), except on 7 February, when it fell to 7° F (-17.9° C).62
In 1694, the frost [in England] was so intense that many forest trees and oaks were split by the frost.212 During the winter of 1694-95 in London, England, the frost was of 7 weeks duration.212

Sea ice completely surrounded the whole island of Iceland. England experienced a cold winter. There was continuous snow for 5 weeks. In Bohemia [now western Czech Republic] during June, the summer was very cold and 3 intense frosts occurred leading to famine.28

At Ausburg [Augsburg, Germany], from the middle of December 1694 to 11 March 1695, the wind was mostly east and exceedingly cold and cloudy. The harvest and beginning of winter were very wet.72

At Ulm in southern Germany, the winter of 1694/1695 was intensely cold and dry. The frost continued even to the spring then suddenly there was a cloudy, rainy thaw about the end of March.72

During the winter of 1694, there was ice in the Whangpu [Huangpu River, China]. 166

1695 A.D. – 1697 A.D. Finland and Estonia. Famine

In the years 1694 to early 1697, cold winters and cool and wet springs and autumns led to extreme famine in northern Europe, particularly in Finland, Estonia, and Livonia. It is estimated that in Finland about 25–33% of the population perished, and in Estonia-Livonia about 20%. The famines to a lesser extent also affected Sweden (especially in the northern region), Norway, and northwestern Russia. The famine decimated the population of Finland and Estonia-Livonia either through prolonged starvation, epidemics and other diseases promoted by undernourishment, or the reliance on unwholesome or indigestible foods, and the contamination of water supplies.151

The summer of 1693 was dry in Finland and then a frost destroyed the meager harvest, especially the crop of barley. The harvests of 1693 and of 1694 were below normal.

In Finland, the beginning of 1695 was the coldest winter since the year 1658. Wolves attacked people in their homes. Spring was late in coming and generally cold. Sowing of seeds could not be finished before midsummer, leaving too short a time for the crops to mature. The summer was also cold. The grains could not ripen before a killing frost came. The autumn was rainy and in most regions, it was impossible to plant the seeds for the winter crop. In the region of Uusimaa, Finland, the rye did not blossom before the end of July and a frost in September destroyed the half mature grain.

The summer in Estonia in 1695 was very rainy. It rained from Johann’s Day (June 24) till Michael’s Day (September 29). As a result, the lowlands were flooded which destroyed the hay and crops.

In Finland, the beginning of 1696 was deceptively mild. The extraordinary snowy early winter of 1695-96 halted the forest work and traffic. But this was interrupted by a thaw in January. Spring came very early and the fields turned green. But on 7 March, winter struck back with a vengeance. Lakes and bays froze thick, so thick that people were able to drive across them [with wagons]. When spring finally returned it was very late and summer was rainy. The crops were

slow in ripening. During the night of 17/18 August a frost struck. In the morning the grains were

coated with a thick layer of ice. A second frost occurred which finished off the rest of the crops.

Estonia experienced a similar weather pattern in 1696. The first part of the winter of 1695-96 was very cold and the snow was very high. But early in 1696, a thaw came. This pattern also happened in Sweden. Winter returned with a vengeance in March and it was impossible to sow the seeds until the end of May. The heavy rains of summer ruined the crops. The harvest amounted to about one-fourth the seeds sown. Shortly after summer, there was no hay to be had for any price.

In Estonia in 1696, landlords could no longer feed their farmhands and servants and began dismissing them. Many of these recently unemployed along with destitute, hungry peasants turned to begging. Even some members of the nobility were reduced to this state. In the autumn of 1696, the famine became terrible. There was a pronounced rise in the death rates. “The peasants died like flies.” Bodies of the dead were lying everywhere. The winter of 1696-97 was extremely harsh. The snow was very high so corpses were left unburied until springtime and then placed in mass graves. Cases of cannibalism were reported in Estonia.

In Finland in 1697, the famines, death and epidemics closely followed. This famine was so horrific that it brought on cases of cannibalism. In Ostrobothnia, Finland, “parents ate the corpses of their children, and children of their parents, brothers and sisters. In northern Karelia, Finland, court documents describe cases of cannibalism. In one township in Karelia, there were so many funerals that the church bell cracked. Storehouses and manor houses were plundered.

1695 A.D. In Ireland, in the spring and summer of 1695, there were many stinking fogs in Limerick and Tipperary.72

In the cold-wet hunger years of 1695-99, Scotland lost between 5% and 15% of its people.151

In England in April 1695, the weather was extraordinarily fair for the most part and almost cloudless. May was remarkably wet, to the destruction of all fruits. All the dog-days [of summer] were exceedingly cold, like winter. The winter was warm and fair except two or three days of hard frost in the end of December.72

On 24 July 1695, there was a violent thunderstorm with hail at Aberdeen, Scotland.212
In 1695, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 53 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In Lappee [present-day Lappeenranta, Finland at 61° N, 27° 35’ E] on Petersmas day in 1695, there was an unusual hailstorm that quickly beat down the crops in all the fields.151

[In Italy], there were profound deluges in 1695.72

In 1695 the Po River in northern Italy overran meadows, fields, and destroyed crops, leading to a severe famine in the area. Lake Zurich (in Switzerland), Lake Constance (in Germany, Switzerland and Austria) and Lake Neuchâtel (in Romandy, Switzerland) froze completely and one could walk over them as one would travel over a bridge. There were ice flows in the River Thames in England.151

In 1695 a violent hurricane struck the Mauricius [Mauritius] Island [in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa].234

At Poson, [Poznań, Poland], the summer and harvest of 1695 was one continued winter of cold rain, raw frosts, mildew, etc.72

At Ulm, Germany, all August to 1 September, it was cold and rainy. September and October were very

cloudy and excessively cold.72

On 4 October 1695, a hurricane struck the Florida Keys in the United States. The hurricane caused the loss of a 933-ton warship offshore.141

In October 1695, a hurricane struck offshore the Caribbean Island of Martinique causing greater than 600 deaths.141

At Poson, [Poznań, Poland], the summer began on 10 September and lasted till 10 December.72 Rivers over a great part of Europe were in heavy floods in 1695-1697. Many of the rivers and lakes

remained frozen for comparatively longer periods of time and didn’t thaw until the late spring.151

In 1695, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 15 January and 12 February, floods struck Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Tung-ming and Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Suchow, Wu-chin and Kao-yu.
— During the period between 12 June and 10 July, floods struck Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou and T’ung-hsiang; Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Kung-an; Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Kuang-jao; Kiangsu province at Wu-chiang; and Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’ên-hai and San-shui [uncertain name].

In 1695 during the 9th moon, there were great rains; sudden rise of rivers and calamities [flood damage] in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Then during the 12th moon [winter], there was thunder and lightning at night with great rain.166

In 1695 during the period between 6 May and 8 August, a drought engulfed Szechwan (now Sichuan province) in southwest China at Ch’ang-ning [uncertain name] and Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Shuo. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Shansi province at Li-shih and Lin.153

Also refer to the section 1695 A.D. – 1697 A.D. for information on the famine in Finland and Estonia during that timeframe.

Winter of 1695 / 1696 A.D. During the winter of 1695 and the spring of 1696, strange dews fell upon Ireland. “We had of late in the county of Limerick and Tipperary, showers of a sort of matter like butter or grease; if one rub it upon one’s hand it will melt, but lay it by the fire and it dries and grows hard, having a very stinking smell. Some of it fell here at Kilkenny on 14 November 1695, which I did see myself the next morning. Having very diligently enquired concerning a very odd phenomenon which was observed in many parts of Munster and Leinster, the best account I can collect thereof, is as follows: for a good part of the winter of 1695, and the spring following, there fell in several places a kind of thick dew which the country people called butter, from the consistency and color of it, being soft, clammy, and of a dark yellow; it fell always at night, and chiefly in Moorish low grounds, on the top of the grass, and often on the thatch of cabins; it was seldom observed in the same place twice, it commonly lay on the earth for near a fortnight without changing its color, but then dried and turned black. Cattle fed in the fields where it lay indifferently as in other fields. If fell in lumps, often as big as the end of one’s finger; very thin and scatteringly. It had a strong ill scent, somewhat like the smell of a churchyard or graves. And indeed we had during most of that season very stinking fogs, some sediment of which might possibly occasion this stinking dew, though I will by no means pretend to offer that a reason of it. I cannot find that it was kept

or sore heads, rubbed them with this substance, and said it healed them.” 234

Early in l696, the cold in England, the Netherlands and northern Germany was excessive. Doctor Derham reported that at the Gresham College, London, England; the thermometer indicated a temperature equal to 1.6° F (-16.9° C).62

On 26 January 1696, there was an intense frost in London, England. The temperature fell to 9 degrees below zero.212

At Poson, [Poznań, Poland], the winter continued to 10 March 1696.72
At Poson, [Poznań, Poland], after 10 December 1695, there came a great snow and a strong frost, which

had no thaw or remission till 10 March 1696. All corn and herbs died and rotted under the snow.72

At Hildesheim in central Germany, up until 10 March there was warm moist winter weather. Following that was some weeks of severe winter weather.72

1696 A.D. In England in 1696, the first three weeks of January was like a summer, clear with gentle gales; no frost or rain. Snow drops, daisies and primroses the first week. The rosebush in leaves and trees budding. In February, gooseberries in London begin to have a body. In March, dull, gloomy cold weather, blasting all the buds and ruining the spring. From Easter to 26 June, there were cold, wet excessive rains and great inundations. The rains rotted the hay. The spring till then was at a standstill. In May, there was an extraordinary flood. From 26 June to 6 July, the weather was fair and then the rains returned. From 10 July, it rained incessantly 36 hours. From 12 to 17 July, the weather was fair. From the 17th of July to the 14th of August, both night and day, there were heavy showers daily. It laid all barley and oats. To the 23rd of August, the weather was fair. The remainder of August was mostly rainy. To the end of the year, the weather was variable. On 24 December, there were three tides in the River Thames in one day. From the 1st to the 11th, there was a hard frost. No snow this winter, two inches deep.72

On 3 February 1696 on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel, there was a landslip [landslide]. The great pier was demolished and much damage done, owing to excessive rain.212

In June 1696, there was an inundation of the River Nyne in Northamptonshire, England.195

In the cold-wet hunger years of 1695-99, Scotland lost between 5% and 15% of its people.151

In 1696, it was a bad year for the crops and food was very dear [scarce] [in England].212

In 1696, the price of wheat [in England] was high averaging 71 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In England, there was a great storm on the east coast; 200 coasters and other vessels, and most of their crews, lost.57

In 1696, a strong gale struck on east coast of England: 200 colliers and coasters lost, with most of their crews.90, 212

In England, 200 sail of colliers and some coasters were lost, with all their crews in a great storm, in the bay of Cromer, in Norfolk.40, 41, 43, 56

In 1696, a hurricane struck northwest Cuba. An unidentified ship was wrecked at Playa de Sabarimar, 7

leagues east of Havana in 35 feet of water during the storm.141

The winter of 1696 was colder than had been known in New England in the United States, since the first arrival of the English. During a great part of the winter, sleighs and loaded sleds passed on the ice from Boston as far as Nantasket (Hull, Massachusetts). So great a scarcity of food, afterwards during the next year, had not been known; nor any grain ever been at a higher price.174

At Poson, [Poznań, Poland] went without rain in 1696; hence a great scarcity in 1697.72
Rivers over a great part of Europe were in heavy floods in 1695-1697. Many of the rivers and lakes

remained frozen for comparatively longer periods of time and didn’t thaw until the late spring.151

In 1696, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period 1-30 May, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Taichow.
— During the period between 31 May and 28 June, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Ch’ü and Shansi (now Shanxi province) in northern China at Ching-yüeh.
— During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Mêng-shan, P’ing-yüeh and Ts’ang-wu.

In 1696, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 29 June and 28 July, floods struck Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at Chi-mo and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Kao-ch’êng and An-hsin [uncertain name, “Hsin-an”].
— During the period between 29 July and 26 August, floods struck Huang-t’u [uncertain name] and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Wuchang, P’u-ch’i, Chiang-ling and Chih-chiang. At Chih-chiang, most of the houses were damaged by the floodwaters.
— During the period between 27 August and 25 September, floods struck Hupeh province at Huang- kang; Hopei province at Jao-yang and Ch’ien-an; Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at T’ien-shui; Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Hsi; and Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at P’ei. [P’ei is located at longitude 117.00° East and latitude 34.47° North.] — During the period between 26 September and 25 October, floods struck Hopei province at Shen-tsê and Jung-ch’êng.

In 1696 during the summer, there were long rains, which injured the crops in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166

Also refer to the section 1695 A.D. – 1697 A.D. for information on the famine in Finland and Estonia during that timeframe.

Winter of 1696 / 1697 A.D. In England, the frost was severe.47, 72, 93
At Poson, [Poznań, Poland], from the end of summer in 1696, then to the end of March 1697, there was

cold rains by day and frost snow and severe cold by night.72

1697 A.D. In the United States, the winter was intensely cold in the American northeast. Boston harbor was frozen as far down as Nantucket. The Delaware River was closed with thick ice for more than three months so that sleights and sleds passed from Trenton to Philadelphia, and from Philadelphia to Chester on the ice.1

At Mansfeld in central Germany, January and February were intensely cold. March and part of April were unsettled, cloudy, snowy, rainy, frosty and clear. April the 1st and May began with hot summer weather, but followed by great storms of hail, especially the 21st, which did much damage. On the 27th sleet snow and an east wind to the end. Summer was often cold with frequent rains and very changeable winds. August was clear, but very cold. September 10th to October, great rains and shifting winds. November was cloudy and snowy. December was mild and rainy, but ended cold.72

In the cold-wet hunger years of 1695-99, Scotland lost between 5% and 15% of its people.151

In London, England from 15 January to 11 February, there was a hard frost with some small remissions. From March to 11 April, there were cold northeasterly winds. The gooseberries not yet budded. On 13 April, there was rain; and by 18 April, there were trees green with leaves, though no spring before. From 29 April to 4 May, there was cloudless, intolerably, sultry, fainting, hot days. The heat was both day and night. From 4 to 25 May, it was cold. From 4 to 19 May, it was wet. On 19 May, it was a frosty night. The rest of May was fair and hot to the end, with a north wind. June was seasonable enough. On 20 June, there was high winds and rain. On the 21st of June, there was excessive cold. On 16 and 17 July, frost and mildew blasted the corn. August to the 10th, still calm; daily rain till the corn grew in the ear as it stood. 12 August frost to 10 September dry sun shiny weather, excellent harvest. On 28 September, there was great hail in the night. October was a pleasant month. On 8 October, there was a great wind.72

On 22 March 1697, the river near Noordwyck [now an abandoned town] on the Mauricius [Mauritius] Island [in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa] swelled in the space of 15 minutes to great heights. The sugar mill and sugar works and most of the ground were ruined. Most of the sugar canes were torn out by the roots by the violence of the currents. Then fifteen minutes later, the water was back to its normal level. The cause of this flood was unknown. There was only light rain at the time and no earthquakes.234

On 9 April 1697 in Wales, hailstones fell in Flintshire weighing 5 ounces.93

In 1697, a tremendous hailstorm struck the part of Denbighshire in northeast Wales bordering on the sea. All the windows on the weather side were broken by the hailstones. Poultry and lambs, together with a large mastiff [breed of dog] were killed. In the north part of Flintshire, several persons had their heads broken, and were grievously bruised in their limbs. The main body of this hailstorm fell on Lancashire in northwest England, in a line from Ormskirk to Blackburn, on the borders of Yorkshire. The breadth of the storm cloud was about two miles, within which it did incredible damage, killing all descriptions of fowl and small creatures, and scarcely leaving a whole pane of glass in any of the windows where it passed. What was still worse, it ploughed up the earth, and cut off the blade of the green corn [grain] utterly destroying them. The hailstones struck with sufficient force to bury themselves in the ground. These hailstones, some of which weighed five ounces, were of different forms, some round, others semi- spherical; some smooth, others embossed and crenulated, like the foot of a drinking glass, the ice being very transparent and hard; but a snowy kernel was in the midst of most of them, if not of all. The force of their fall showed that they descended from a great height.191

On 29 April 1697, there was a thunderstorm, which produced great hail at Snowdon in Denbighshire, Wales. It also struck Flintshire, Chester, West Kirkby [West Kirby], Ormskirk, and Blackburn. The cloud was 2 miles [3.2 kilometers] wide and the length of the track 60 miles [97 kilometers] long. Hailstones of 5 ounces [142 grams] and of various shapes, broke nearly all the window, killed many fowls, and destroyed the green corn [grain]. Some hailstones were 5 inches [13 centimeters] round. Scarcely any stones were as little as musket balls. But some were as large as hen’s eggs and 1⁄2 pound

[227 grams] in weight. Many sea fowl [sea birds] were killed. Poultry and sheep were also killed.212

In Cheshire and Lancashire, England on the 29th of April, “a storm of hail, which killed fowls and small

animals, and knocked down horses and men; some of the stones weighing half a pound.” 40, 41, 43, 56, 57

In Cheshire and Lancashire, England on the 20th of April, “a storm of hail, which killed fowls and small animals, and knocked down horses and oxen; some of the stones weighing half a pound.” 93

On 29 April 1697 at Cheshire and Lancashire, England; on 4 May at Hertfordshire, England on 6 June at Monmouthshire, Wales on 9 June at Herefordshire, England fell shocking tempests of prodigious hail.72

On 29 April 1697 in England and Wales there was a hailstorm where the stones weighed three-quarters of a pound. The astronomer Hailey communicated a paper to the Royal Society on this storm.93

Toward the end of April in 1697, a hailstorm struck Cheshire in northwest England. The storm was 2- miles wide and traveled a path for 60 miles before it was dissipated. The hailstones were as big as eggs and some were the size of a man’s fist. They were pieces of clear, transparent, and very hard ice, with a white kernel in the middle, which seemed like a lump of snow. Some of these vast hailstones were smooth, others rough and sharp on the surface. They fell with a prodigious force, and killed fowls, lambs, and calves. They beat down the young crops of every kind. In some places where the wind drove them at a slanting angle, they plowed up the surface of the ground burying them an inch or two in depth. Trees were broken and shattered to pieces in many places. Houses were damaged. Many people who were outside during the storm were harmed.192

An extraordinary hailstorm struck Wales and England on 29 April 1697. The track of this storm was over 60 miles in length. The storm formed with southwest winds out of Carnarvanshire [Caernarfonshire], passing near Snowdon with a horrid black cloud attended with frequent lightning and thunder. It traveled as far as can be determined no further westward than Denbighshire, where it left St. Asaph to the right, and did much damage between it and the Sea, breaking all the windows on the weather-side, and killing poultry and lambs, and at Sir John Conway’s at Desert, a stout dog. In the northern part of Flintshire, several people had their heads broke, and were grievous bruised on their bodies. From Flintshire, Wales it crossed over the Arm of the Sea that comes up to Chester, England and was only felt in Cheshire, at the very northwest corner of the peninsula called Wiral, between Æfluaria of Chester and Leverpoole [Liverpool], at a town called West Kirby, where it hailed only 3 minutes. It was at Chester about 3 o’clock in the afternoon. The main body of the hail fell upon Lancashire, in a right line from Ormskirk to Blackborn [Blackburn], which is on the border of Yorkshire; but whether it crossed the ridge of hills into Yorkshire, we know not. The breadth of the cloud was about 2 miles within which it did incredible damage, killing all sorts of birds and small creatures. It scarcely left a whole pane of glass in any of the windows it passed. It plowed up the earth and cut off the blade of green corn [grain] so utterly destroying it. The hailstones buried themselves in the ground. On the bowling greens, where the earth was anything soft, they were defaced, so as to be rendered unserviceable for a time. Some of the hailstones weighed 5 ounces. They were of different forms. Some were round, some half round, some smooth, others embossed and crenulated, like the foot of a drinking glass, the ice very transparent and hard, but a snowy kernel was in the midst of most of them, if not all of them. Because of the force of the fall, the hailstones must have fallen from a great height. Near Bootle in Merseyside, England where the storm skirted, one of the hailstones measured 5 inches in circumference. At Bootle-Mill, the sea seemed to have risen to an extreme height and took on the appearance of a forest of woods. [As the hailstones struck with great force, they sent spouts of water up almost 5 feet high.] The hailstones were as big as Poot Eggs. Many seafowl and land fowl were killed by the hail. The storm was very violent at Linaker. It made holes in William Halsall’s barns, broke branches off his apple trees, and made wounds in the green brow [hill] by his house. The holes were generally an inch to an inch and a half deep. William Halsall said that these hailstones fell so violently into the marl-pit [a pit from which marl is dug] beside his house that the spouts of water rose a yard and a half high. The hailstones were as big as duck eggs at Aughton Common and at

Sephton [Sefton]. One of the hailstones at Sephton weighed a full half-pound. Two hailstones were weighed at Ormskirk. Each weighed 3⁄4 of a pound. The hailstones at Ince [in Lancashire, England] varied between the size of duck eggs and goose eggs. In a little town next to the sea, they gathered birds killed by the hail by the bushels. On the seaside, at least seven varieties of dead birds were gathered including curlieu [curlew], sea-pye [oystercatcher, sea pie], sea swallow and gorre. At Bootle, a young woman who was running for shelter during the storm had her hat fall off and a hailstone hit her from behind the ear and made her tumble. A man was knocked off his horse. Another man pulled down his hat to save his face and a hailstone tore the brim from the crown, so far that he could put his hand through the hole. At Ormskirk, the hailstones rebounded 2 yards high. At Ince, two horses were knocked down in the plough and a man fell at the same time. At Crosby, some beasts were knocked down by the hail. Joseph Holland was found dead after the storm but it couldn’t be ascertained whether his death was caused by hail or lightning. Two women were so badly beaten by the hail before they could find cover that the next morning, they could hardly turn them over in their beds.234

In Hertfordshire in eastern England on the 4th of May, hailstones fell 14 inches in circumference; destroyed trees and corn in a most dreadful manner.40, 41, 43, 56, 57

After a severe storm of thunder and lightning on 4 May 1697 in Hertfordshire, England, a shower of hail ensued ” by which some persons were killed, their bodies beat black and blue, and oaks were split and fields of corn cut down as with a scythe. The stones measured from 10 to 14 inches in circumference; their figures are said to have been various—some oval, others picked, and some flat.” Another source cites the hailstones in Hertfordshire as measuring 14 inches in circumference.93

In the beginning of May in 1697, a hailstorm struck Herefordshire in the West Midlands region of England. In this terrible storm, not only fowls and young animals of all kinds were killed, but some of the larger ones. Some persons laboring in the fields, who could not reach shelter, suffered the same fate. Their bodies were black and blue, as if beaten to death with clubs. Oak trees were split in two. The branches of many other trees were torn down. The fields of rye were, in some places, cut down as if mowed off with a scythe. Many of the hailstones measured fourteen inches round.192

On 4 May 1697, a hailstorm struck Hitchin, England. Hailstones were 7 or 8 inches [18-20 centimeters] about [in circumference]. At Sir J. Spencer’s, 7,000 quarries [a square or diamond shaped pane] of glass were broken. The hail split great trees, and destroyed several hundred acres of wheat; and there were some stones 13 or 14 inches [33-36 centimeters] about. The ground was torn up, and there were at least 100,000 cartloads of hailstones. A southwest gale occurred at the same time. In Staffordshire, some of the hailstones were nearly 12 inches [30 centimeters] in circumference.212

On Tuesday, 4 May 1697, at Hitchin in Hartfordshire [Hertfordshire], England, about 9 o’clock in the morning, it began to lightning and thunder extremely, some great showers intervening. This continued until around 2 o’clock in the afternoon, when a black cloud appeared and there was a sharp shower of hail. Some of the hailstones measured 7 and 8 inches in circumference. But the most extreme part of this storm fell at Offley, where a young man was killed, one of his eyes stuck out of his head; his body was all over black with bruises. Another person nearer to Offley escaped with his life, but was much bruised. There was a house of Sir Joseph Spencer in which 7,000 quarries of glass were broken. The hail fell in such vast quantities, and so great, that it tore up the ground, split great oaks and other trees in great number. It cut down great fields of rye, as with a scythe, and destroyed several hundred acres of wheat, and barley. So much so that they ploughed it up and sowed the field with oats. The tempest was such when it fell that in 4 poles of land, from the hills near us, it carried away all the staples of the land, leaving nothing but chalk. The hail broke a vast number of pigeon’s wings, crows, rooks, and other birds. The flood [of hail] came down, spreading 4 or 5 acres of land, [roaring] like the Bay of Biscay; and which is very strange, all this fell in the compass of one English mile. I was walking in my garden, which is

very small, perhaps about 30 yards square, and before I could get out, it took me to my knees, and was through my house before I could get in, which I can modestly say was within a minutes time. It went through like a sea, carrying all wooden things like boats on the water. The greatest part of the town experienced this misfortune. The surprise was so great, that we had scarcely enough time to save our children and wives. There fell some hundred thousand cartloads of hail. I saw them 4 days later, and if the beds of hail had not been broke by people coming and going or trampled by horses, it might have laid until Michaelmas. The hailstones were measured from one to thirteen and fourteen inches certain. Some people said they found hailstones that measured 17 and 18 inches. The hailstones had various shapes, some oval, others round, others picked, some flat. The damage done to our town was near 4,000 pounds. [In present currency, that would be equivalent to £463,000 using the retail price inflation index.] 234

In 1697, there was a northwest gale in Lancashire, England with hailstones 6-9 inches [15-23 centimeters] in circumference. Rooks and hares [birds and rabbits] killed, and vast quantities of glass broken.212

On 6 June 1697, there was a hailstorm at Pont-y-pool [Pontypool] in Monmouthshire, Wales. The storm extended a mile and lasted half an hour. Some hailstones were eight inches [20 centimeters] about [in circumference] and very irregular. The hail broke all the beans and wheat.212

On 6 June [9 June] 1697, there was a hailstorm at Westhide, near Hereford, England. The hail fell in so great quantity that it destroyed all the poultry, garden stuff, corn [grain], grass and windows. Some stones were 9 inches [23 centimeters] about [in circumference].212

In 1697, there was a hailstorm in Herefordshire, England. “Hail stones 13 and 14 inches round [33-36 centimeters].” 212

On 7 June 1697 in Charleville, Ireland near Limerick there had been a very wet spring, and as a result a bog moved over 40 acres of good ground, burying it sixteen feet [5 meters] deep.212

In 1697, it was a bad year for the crops and food was very dear [scarce] [in England].212 In 1697, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 60 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 Excessive heat reigned again in July 1697 in northern France.79

On 14 July 1697, in the region around the villages of Nummi and Pusula, Finland (at 60° 30’ N, 24° E), there fell a “furious” shower of hail. The hailstones struck the cattle and made holes in the walls and roofs of houses. The crops on 19 farms was totally destroyed, 3 farms lost 1⁄2 of their crops, and another 3 farms lost 1/3 or their crops.151

In mid-July 1697 in Kalanti [present-day Uusikirkko, Finland (at 60° 50’ N, 21° 35’ E)], a hailstorm produced hailstones the size of hen’s eggs causing great destruction on 5 farms.151

Universal rains during the summer of 1697, made all the rivers overflow in France. The rains lasted at least two months. The rain fell so hard for eight days from the Feast of Saint Peter [29 June], that in one night the Seine, the Loire and the Meuse rivers rose seven feet. The rivers continued to grow and overran their banks and flooded all the countryside, with the farmland, houses and their inhabitants.79

At Poson, [Poznań, Poland], May and June most unequal, the heavens were terrible with clouds and cold rains. In July and August, the heat was excessive but often mixed with cold showers.72

Rivers over a great part of Europe were in heavy floods in 1695-1697. Many of the rivers and lakes

remained frozen for comparatively longer periods of time and didn’t thaw until the late spring.151

In 1697, a drought engulfed several regions of China including: 153
— During the period 5 February and 6 May, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Yang-chiang and Yang-ch’un; and Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at Mêng-shan and P’ing-yüeh. — During the period 18 July and 16 August, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Hsing-t’ai.
— During the period 15 September and 14 October, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at T’ung-lu and Sung-yang.

In 1697 during the 5th moon, there was a great drought in the vicinity of Shanghai, China. Then during the 6th moon on the 1st day in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was a typhoon that destroyed life and property.166

In 1697 during the period between 17 August and 14 September, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at K’un-shan and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Lin-yü.153

Also refer to the section 1695 A.D. – 1697 A.D. for information on the famine in Finland and Estonia during that timeframe.

Winter of 1697 / 1698 A.D. During the winter of 1697, there was a severe frost [in England].212

On 25 November 1697 in London, England, there was ice three inches thick. December 12th and 15th it was hot; the 12th, 18th, 19th and 20th, there was mist, hot and moist. From 10 to 30 December, it was as hot as in August; one could not bear the bedclothes. Yet there were frosts before and snow 12 inches deep.
In January, there was much snow in deep drifts. All January, there was ice upon the water, which on the 26th was eight inches thick (i.e. within 2 1⁄2 times as thick as at any time on the Canal of St. James’s Park in 1740). Yet on the 29th of January, there was lightning and five claps of thunder. The winds were northeast almost the entire month of February with little sunshine, except for six days during the second week. On 14 February there was a great storm, and the lanes were blown up with snow several yards deep, that lasted the rest of the month. But the fields lay bare. [The winds blew the snow in from the flat fields into great snowdrifts.] On the 26th of February, the ice was four inches thick. On March the 24th and 26th, thunder and lightning, warm sunshine all day with sulfurous clouds and hot evenings. On April the 11th, there was thunder followed by showers. On April 22, it snowed hard from morning till noon, then a little sunshine; then snowed again very fast; then, sunshine followed with large hail (similar to the storm of April 1740). On April 25th, there were showers of fierce great hail with thunder and sunshine mixed. On April 27th, there was thunder and a storm of hail after. April was a cold month. On the 30th of April, the first cuckow [observed]. Gooseberries not yet blossomed. On 3 May, there was a great deep snow over all of England. On 15 May, the woods were like winter.72, 212

1698 A.D. In London, England on 17 May, there was a great hailstorm. On 31 May, the wheat very low; cold weather. On 3 June, it was cold with great lightning and thunder, loud and near, with fierce large hail three inches deep on the ground. On 16 June in a warm rich soil, the first wheat ear was seen near London. This was the backwardest spring in 47 years. On July the first part was wet. On the evening of 15 July, there was a great rain. From 18 to 26 July, there was cloudless sunshine. On the 9th there was a great deal of red lightning with unceasing thunder. There were no gooseberry tarts till July. On the 30th of July, the apple trees in small blossoms as in the spring. On 13, 14 and 15 August there were frosts. The latter half of August was the most pleasant time in this year. On the 6th, there was one clap of

thunder and then a shower of the biggest water droplets ever known. The four last months had scarce two days together without rain (and with the exception of the period from 18 to 26 July) the wettest season known. Whole fields of corn [wheat] spoiled even in Kent; much more [spoilage] in the north. Horses were turned into [fed] the peas and barley. The earliest wheat not cut till the middle of September. In Kent, September the 29th, barley standing uncut there; much lay in the swath till December. That which was brought in was soaked with wetness and almost useless. Much corn in the north was got at Christmas. And in Scotland, they were reaping in January and beating the deep snow off it, as they reaped the poor green empty crop. Bread made from what was harvested would not stick together, but fell in pieces, and tasted sweet as if made of malt. On 3 October, there was much lightning and pretty much thunder. On 15, 16 and 17 October, there were extreme cold nights with winds from the north- northwest. On 30 October, there was a great deal of rain and snow with the winds from the northeast. On 17 November, there was lightning and thunder. December was warm. On the 7th of December there was a hot steam. On 22 December, wheat was sown, which proved as forward in harvest as any. The seed time was so wet that there was hardly above half a crop sown this year.72, 212

In 1698, the price of wheat [in England] was low averaging 18 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

On 6 August 1698 in England, “Biggest rain-drops known. The most rain last four months known. Whole fields of corn [grain] spoilt. The first wheat cut in the middle of Sept., and much barley in swathe till December. In the North much corn ungot at Christmas, and in Scotland corn was reaped in January 1699, and the snow beaten off it. Bread made of it fell in pieces, and tasted sweet like malt.” 212

On 5 November 1698, there was a terrible flood, which destroyed a great part of St. Werburgh’s Church in Derby, England.212

On 22 December 1698, there was a thunderstorm at Warley Town near Halifax in West Yorkshire, England.212

In the cold-wet hunger years of 1695-99, Scotland lost between 5% and 15% of its people.151

In 1698 during the period between 10 May and 7 July, a drought engulfed Honan (now Henan province) in central China at An-yang. During the period between 8 June and 7 July, a drought engulfed Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at T’ung-ling. Also during the period between 8 June and 7 July, floods struck Anhwei province at Wu-yüan, Fêng-yang and Wu-ho; Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at T’ang-i [possible misprint] and Liao-ch’êng; Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at An-hsin [uncertain name “Hsin-an”]; and Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Yung-hsiu [uncertain name, “Chien-ch’ang”].153

In 1698 during the autumn, there was a flood in the vicinity of Shanghai, China.166
Winter of 1698 / 1699 A.D. The year 1698 [in England] was the coldest year between 1695 and 1742.212

The winter of 1698-99 was extremely cold [in London, England]. On 30 January, the River Thames was full of ice.227

In 1699, there was a severe frost [in England]. The price of wheat, which in preceding years had seldom reached 30 shillings per quarter [quarter ton], now rose to 713 shillings per quarter.212

1699 A.D. On 7 February 1699, there was a tempest and hurricane [in England].72
On 7 February 1699, there was a west-northwest gale that struck Upminster, England. It was a terrible

gale that did much damage.212
In 1699, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 64 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212 In Britain, the harvest was hottest and driest; drought until the following January.47
In England in 1699, there was plenty [plentiful harvest].72

England was hit with a stifling heat wave on 22 June 1699. The summer in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days 55 days

Very hot days 5 days
[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

There were heavy rains in April and September. In Paris, the three summer months produced 130 mm (5.1 inches) of rain. In Burgundy the spring was late and wet. There were hot days in August. In Dijon, France, the grape harvest began on 5 September. It produced little wine but the quality was good.62

In Breslaw [now Wrocław, Poland], January was cloudy, rainy, windy and cold. The latter end of February was no better. March began terrible with snow and hoar frost, till the milder spring came in. [There was a famine at the time and many people were consuming unwholesome foods.]72

In Augsburg, Germany, in January, the winds were from the east or south. There were frequent snows, but they melted as they fell. But before the equinox [around March 20th or 21st] fell a great snow and the cold continued till May. The cold ended in long rains.72

Charleston, South Carolina in the United States was nearly depopulated by an awful tempest and inundation.1

In 1699, a powerful cyclone struck Sunderbans coast, Bangladesh causing 50,000 deaths.98

In England in January, some of the days were perfectly warm. Although on some mornings there was frost. Terrible storms struck on 7 and 12 February. On 24 March, there was a storm of thunder and lightning, high winds and hail. There was another violent hailstorm on 30 March with loud thunder and yet very cold. During the first half of April, the weather was very cold. People were forced to put on again their winter clothes, which they threw off in February. The last half of April had flying clouds and honey dews. [For the past 9 years, June and July have been so cold that they were difficult to distinguish from the winters] But this year, 1699, produced one of the first of several hot summers. June and July were so hot that wheat began to be harvested on 1 August. And though there was only a half a crop sown, the price of wheat fell from 9 and 10s. a bushel to a reasonable price, which continued for several years. June the 22nd and 23rd, it was sultry hot, like the summers of old. The 24th was sultry, and abundance of thunder, the sky being clear; only a few fleecy clouds, and sometimes a few small drops from one. It was intolerably hot to the end of June. The weather was kind to the wheat but not to oats and barley. Those crops were poor for want of rain. July was intolerably hot. There was little grass and no rain. On 11 August the nuts were full and on the 28th they fell out of the hulks. September was mostly sultry hot, beyond what any month had been for nine summers before this. On 18 September, the sown wheat was already green on the ground. In October, the weather was warm, cloudless sunshine and very calm; as pleasant summer weather an in any month. The year 1699 was not only the hottest, but driest harvest of many years. In Scotland, some of their mosses took fire from small sparks and burnt till after Christmas. In November and December it was all like summer; warm pleasant sunshine. On 26 November, there was

snow yet it was warm. On 30 November, the snow laid 8 or 9 inches deep. The middle two weeks of

December were perfectly warm.72
In the cold-wet hunger years of 1695-99, Scotland lost between 5% and 15% of its people.151

In 1699 during the period between 5 February and 8 August, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hangchow and T’ung-hsiang. During the period between 31 March and 29 April, a drought engulfed Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-p’o. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Hupeh province at Ao-ch’êng and Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Wu-chin.153

In 1699, floods struck several regions of China including: 153
— During the period between 27 June and 26 July, floods struck Yü-ch’êng [possibly a misprint]; Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at T’ai-shun and Chien-tê; and Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Wu-chi and An-hsin [uncertain name “Hsin-an”].
— During the period between 25 August and 22 September, floods struck Chekiang province at Hangchow.
— During the period between 23 September and 22 October, floods struck Chekiang province at Taichow, Chin-hua, T’ang-ch’i, Ch’ü, Chiang-shan and Ch’ang-shan; Kiangsi (now Jiangxi province) in southern China at Kan; and Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Mien-yang.

In 1699 during the 6th moon in the vicinity of Shanghai, China, there was an overflow of the sea and lakes.166

1700 A.D. In England, January and February was no different than summer in warmth. There were some stormy days, some days with a little frost and rain and hail. On 8 and 9 March, the weather was burning hot and dry. On 18 March, the ground was chopped and dust was flying as in summer. There was no rain until the latter end of March. On 30 March, there was hail the size of small nuts. From 5 to 16 April, the weather was excessively hot. The month of April ended hot. On 9 May, there was thunder. The gooseberries were large and the peas were a week in blossoms. On 18 May, the hartichoaks [artichokes] were full and large. After a few days of cold rain beginning on 21 May, the month ended very hot. The first half of June was summer weather, but the latter half was uncertain rainy weather. July was fair to the 10th followed by stormy weather and much rain but the month ended very hot. On 1 and 3 August, there was wind and rain and then to the 16th of August it was glorious summer weather. The remainder of August was variable. After the rain on 31 August, the trees and meadows were as delightful as spring. September weather was variable. On 9 September, there was a hailstorm. On 18 September, there was a great frost, which was destructive to everything it could hurt, especially the grapes. On 23 and 24 September, there was much rain. The 26th was glorious sunshine and hot, then dreadful thunder and lightning at night with pouring rains. It was a tempest at first remote, then near, loud and long. October set in stormy, then fine sunshine weather to the 19th. After that there was various rain and frost. December had several pleasant days. On 11, 14 and 19 November, there was a hard frost. But on 20 and 29 November, there were summer days. December set in with frost and snow. On 7 December, ice bears; on the 8th a hard frost and then rains; on the 13th a dreadful storm; but from the 15th to the 18th it was mild; from the 24th to the 29th there was sunshine and fine weather; but on the 31st it was frost.72

The summer of 1700 in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

29 days 2 days 2 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperatures occurred on 9 and 12 September.62

At Mulchus on the border of the Hessen region of Germany, the winter to 10 March was most inconsistent with cold winds from the north and winds from the south that brought great snow, fog, clouds and rain. Spring was more temperate and dry. The winds were from the east and there were a few showers. The weather of 1699 produced a crop of wheat with black spots. The wheat was unwholesome and caused nausea both in man and beast. There was a great scarcity and dearth. After the equinox [around March 20/21], there was a moist rainy season to the end of October. The weather then turned most inconstant until the winter solstice [around December 21/22].72

At Breslaw [now Wrocław, Poland], the summer, harvest and winter were pretty temperate.72 At Leeds, England on 27 April, there was a terrible storm of thunder and lightning.72
On 27 April 1700, there was a thunderstorm that was very violent at Leeds, England.212
In 1700, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 40 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212

In 1700, there was a famine in England from the rain and cold of the previous year.57, 72, 91 In 1700, it was extremely warm [in England].212

On 14 September 1700, a hurricane struck Charleston, South Carolina in the United States causing 97 or 98 deaths.141

During the autumn of 1700, a dreadful hurricane damaged Charlestown [Charleston], South Carolina in the United States, and threatened its total destruction. The sea rushing in with amazing impetuosity, obligated the inhabitants to fly to the second stories of their houses, where they generally were secure. A large vessel, belonging to Glasgow, which had come from Darien with a part of the unfortunate Scotch settlers, and was riding at anchor off the bar, was driven from her anchor, and dashed to pieces against the sand banks; and every soul on board perished.174

In 1700 during the period between 21 March and 18 April, a drought engulfed Chekiang (now Zhejiang province) on the east coast of China at Hu-chou. During the period between 17 June and 15 July, a drought engulfed Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Sha-ho. During the period between 8 August and 8 November, a drought engulfed Chekiang province at Ch’ang-shan. Then during the period between 15 August and 12 September, floods struck Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-yu and Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at T’an-ch’êng [probably a misprint, “Yen-ch’êng”] and Lin-i [Lin-i is located at longitude 118.24° East and latitude 35.07° North.]153

1701 A.D. On the Feast of Candlemas [2 February] 1701, there arose in Paris, France, a furious hurricane. No one remembered having seen anything like it. The top of Saint Louis Church sank in on the assistants. This hurricane destroyed the kingdom.79

The summer of 1701 was the most remarkable since the year 1682 because of its long duration of the heat and its high temperatures. In Italy, it produced intolerable heat. In Paris, France the summer was characterized by:

 

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

62 days 11 days 9 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with

temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]
The peak temperatures occurred on 10, 11, 13, 26, 27, 28 July, 17 & 31 August and 1 September. On 17 August the temperature almost reached 104° F (40° C). In Dijon, France, in Burgundy the grape harvest began on 22 September.62

The summer of 1701 was also very hot in Paris, France. The summer produced, sixty-two days of a heat of 77° F (25° C), eleven days of a heat of 87.8° F (31° C), and nine days of heat 95° F (35° C). The highest temperature was reached on August 17 with a reading of 104° F (40° C).79

In 1701, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 37 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212 In 1701 [in England], there was an excessively warm summer.212

At Breslaw [now Wrocław, Poland], January was changeable. February weather was quite frightful, with clouds, shifting winds, cold and snow. March was milder, but often rainy, stormy, cloudy with hail and shifting winds. April was the most inclement from the changes of wind, cold, hail, clouds, snow and rain. May was mostly foggy, cloudy and rainy. June had its rain and thunder.72

Russia suffered from a major famine in 1701. Many of the famines in Russia were accompanied by such horrors as eating of bark, grass, and dung, and cannibalism. In 1701 in Moscow, pies were made of human meat and sold openly in the streets.96

In 1701, floods struck many regions of China including: 153
— Kwangsi (now Guangxi province) in southern China along the border with Vietnam at P’ing-yüeh.
— Yunnan province in southwest China at Hao-ch’ing.
— Hopei (now Hebei province) in northern China at Kuang-p’ing.
— Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Lien and Canton.
— During the period between 6 July and 3 August, a flood struck Hupeh (now Hubei province) in central China at Huang-kang and Kwangtung province at Ta-pu and Ch’ao-an.

In 1701 during the period between 6 June and 5 July, a drought engulfed Shantung (now Shandong province) on the east coast of China at T’ang-i. During the period between 6 July and 3 August, a drought engulfed Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at Lin-hsia and Lanchow. During the period 2-30 October, a drought engulfed Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’iung-shan.153

In England, the frost that began on 31 December 1700 lasted until 8 January 1701. The ice [on ponds or lakes] was only two inches thick because it was covered [insulated] with snow six inches thick and later ten inches deep. The next few days produced a mixture of rain, snow, frost and fine days. On 17 and 18 January, it was windy, with flooding rains, a terrible storm with great loss at sea and damage to land. The weather to the 26th consisted of rain, wind and snow. There was frost to the end of January. From the quantity of snow and rain, and the suddenness of the thaw, came a great flood, which made low grounds like a sea. February weather varied with wind, hail, and rain in abundance and some pleasant days towards the end of the month. On 6 February, there was a dreadful storm with lightning and one clap of thunder. The first of March was a half rainy day. It was a sober and calm season to the 12th of March, and then the rest of the month was sunshine and still calm with no winds. But there were pretty hard frost from 20 March to the end of the month. Yet it was mixed in with heat in the mornings or evenings. April was a pleasant month but dry and frosty. So spring came but slowly on. On 10 April there was the first sighting of the cuckow; on the 13th a nightingale. On 9 and 12 April, there was frost; but soon it was hot.

From 16 to 19 April, there was snow and hail every day and very cold. Only gooseberries were in blossom. On 1 May, the elm trees were just budding at London. On 10 May, there was a white frost. There was no rain since 29 April and the ground was very dry. From 16 to 22 May, there was thunder with fine showers. May ended with some stormy days. The month of June produced lovely weather. On 5 June, there was thunder. On 25 June, the thunder was long and loud and produced all flooding rains. On 30 June, there was continual rolling thunder with little or no rain. Several days in June were sultry hot. In general the weather in July was sultry hot with no rain. On the 15-18 July there was lightning with dreadful thunder and short outbursts of smart showers. August was intolerably hot both night and day, with much lightning and thunder. Even though it was a hot month with frequent showers, yet there was some white frost. September was hot still and a little remarkable. There was a mixture of hot sunshine and dull mists. There were some frost in October and periods of exceedingly cold weather, but the rest was pleasant glorious weather. There was ice at the end of October, 1 inch thick. The 16th of October was remarkable for a prodigious number of beetles driving in a great fog. November was generally warm and pretty dry. With the exception of 4 days, the first twelve days of December were dull days. From 15 to 21 December, there were hard frost and the ice was 4 inches thick. On 26 December, there was a terrible storm. This was followed by an abundant rainfall.72

1702 A.D. In 1702, the winter was very mild in Italy.62
On 3 February 1702, there was a violent gale at Upminster in East London, England with a great

depression of the barometer of 28.43 inches; at Townley 27.39 inches.212

In 1702, England suffered drought. March, April and May were very dry in Lancashire and the crops of grass very poor. From April 23 to May 29, Upminster had scarcely any rain. March had been a dry month but during April up to the 23rd, it had been wet. After May 29th, there was a great shower. In England, it was excessively hot during the summer.212

In 1702, there was a most destructive gale at Chester in Cheshire, England.212
In 1702, there was a flood that ruined the watermills at Congleton in Cheshire, England.212
In 1702, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 29 shillings 6 pence per quarter [quarter ton].212 The summer of 1702 was again unusually hot. The summer in Paris, France was characterized by:

Hot days
Very hot days Extremely hot days

47 days 5 days 3 days

[It appears that hot days are defined as those with temperatures of 25° C and greater but less than 31° C, very hot days are those with temperatures 31° C or greater but less than 35° C, and extremely hot days are those with temperatures of 35° C or greater.]

The peak temperatures occurred on 28 & 29 July and 5 August. In Dijon, France, in Burgundy the grape harvest began on 16 September.62

At Augsburg, Germany, the weather had a southerly moist constitution till after 11 March, then a clear east wind to 1 April. Then there was a strong south wind and often snow and sleet, succeeded by frequent rains till after the 1st of May. Then an east wind brought clear weather. But the spring was very dry, late and slow. June set in with a south wind and great rain, with the exception of a few clear days. July began very hot, but with thunder, lightning and cool rain soon followed. From the rising of the Dog-Star [Sirius], there was clear hot weather. August was mostly clear and hot. In November began an early winter with frost and often snow. But these were soon thawed by mild air and rain. This variety of frost, rain, and snow with south winds chiefly finished the year.72

In England, to the latter end of February it was very rainy and floody. On 3 February, there was a dreadful storm that did great damage. To the latter end of February, there was pleasant weather with a mixture of frost and snow. During 5 to 24 March in Hertfordshire, there was such unseasonable heat, normally the weather found in July. During March of this year, there were no clouds or rain; the ground was all dust. (There was no March like this from 1695 to 1741). On 24 and 25 March at night there were high winds and storms of hail. The 26th of March was so cold that it froze within doors. The weather was backwards until the middle of April. On 22 April, there were fine large dews, which brought spring on again. After this, there was perpetual dry weather. Hay harvest began in the beginning of May. All of June had fine weather. On 16 July, wheat was cut. There was an excellent summer until the beginning of October. Beginning on 6 October, there were some rainy days, a great deal of lightning and very loud thunder with a fierce storm of rain. To 8 November there was fine sunshine weather, with frosty nights. Then to the end of December, continual rains and wind, except some small frost that closed November.72

In Yorkshire, England, the first attempt at tillage was made on 10 April, when the weather was so intolerably sultry hot, that in about six miles compass, 37 or 38 draughts of oxen were killed. The likes of which occurred in severe other places.72

On 21 June 1702 at Hatfield, Yorkshire, England, there was a land-spout [tornado], like those at sea [waterspout].72

In 1702, a severe drought engulfed Kiangsu (now Jiangsu province) on the east coast of China at Kao-yu. During the period between 27 May and 24 June, a flood struck Anhwei (now Anhui province) in eastern China at Ying-shan; Kwangtung (now Guangdong province) on the south coast of China facing the South China Sea at Ch’ên-hai; and Kansu (now Gansu province) in northwest China at Ning.153

1703 A.D. [In Germany], the south winds and mild weather continued to 18 January. Then there was severe cold cloudy weather that produced snow, which lasted until 26 January. Then gentle showers prevailed. The cold spring hindered vegetation till a mild season hastened on the fruitful year. The dog- days began clear and moist, but ended clear and hot, but rainy at last. After this the weather was inconstant. About 8 September, south winds brought in much rain and a frightful wind. A humid southerly constitution prevailed till after the solstice; then a clear east wind brought in severe cold, which prevailed until the end of the year.72

The River Thames in London, England, rose so high at Westminster, that the lawyers were brought out of the hall in boats.40

This was a very mortal summer in England. The rainy season, which began in November 1702, continued till far into February 1703. From the 14th to the 28th of February, there was fine sunshiny weather. But there was a hard frost from 17 to 23 February. It was the greatest frost this year with some little snow. With the exception of a few storms, all March and April was lovely mild sunshine weather, hot and dewy, often sultry hot, an early spring. From 4 to 11 May, there were continual cold rains. From 11 to 16 May, there was hot sunshine. On the 16th, it was excessively hot with much thunder and lightning and soaking showers. From 16 to 21 May, it was pleasant. Then to the 30th, there was an abundance of cold rains. From 1 to 5 June, the weather was pretty good. From 5 to 18 June, there was not a day free from rain. This was dark blustering dismal weather, like November. Bees were swarming in May, starved with cold and rains. All roads were flooded. From 18 to 20 June, the weather was good. But then to the 24th it was still worse with cold wet weather and much hail. The roads were never worse in any winter. Then to 28 July, there was fine summer weather and no rain. Then to the end of July all rain. On 31 July from nine o’clock at night to nine o’clock in the morning there was incessant dreadful thunder and lightning and much hail. August had no rain. Never was such a crop of hay and grass everywhere, except in the marshes. September began with nipping frosts. There was terrible thunder and

lightning on 11 September. After this was much rain. October was mild to the 23rd, then very wet and blustery weather to the end. On 22 November, there was calm sunshine but the thunder could be heard roar all day five miles distance from the shore. The 23rd was bright and the 24 & 25 there were steams, and then on the 26th began a memorable hurricane, or dreadful storm, which as far exceeded all others, as stormy were above a common gale. This Nation sustained more loss at sea by this storm, then ever it had by any engagement with an enemy. It was followed by a length of dry weather, which was happy. All the houses were striped, and only covered with deal boards, till tiles could be got. The demand for them was such, that they were 30s. per 1,000.72

In 1703, it was very wet from April to July and from September to November in Southern England. In Northern England it was not so rainy. July was dry.212

On 15 May 1703 in northern France, at Illiers [now Illiers-Combray] there were hailstones as large as a fist.93

In 1703, the price of wheat [in England] averaged 36 shillings per quarter [quarter ton].212
On 18 October 1703, an Atlantic hurricane struck Virginia and Maryland in the United States. Several

vessels were driven to sea, and no more heard of.141

In 1703, a violent hurricane struck Virginia in the United States causing much damage to ships and plantations of the colonists.174

In 1703, several gales struck England. November 3 produced a violent gale. November 25 – 27 produced an extremely violent gale at Upminster. At Lewes, it caused great destruction; also at Norwich, Beccles, Sudbury and Colchester. From November 26 to December 1, there was the “Great Gale” that was so disastrous as to fill a volume of the “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society” with accounts of it. Probably surpassing all others on record. On December 8, there was a dreadful hurricane in England. On December 27 & 28, there was a violent gale at Leeds.212

From 26 November to 1 December 1703, a great gale struck England. Twelve men-of-war (with 1300 [1800] men on board) were lost in sight of land. London sustained a damage of £2,000,000. In Kent alone 17,000 trees were uprooted. Eddystone lighthouse was destroyed. The Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells and his wife were killed in bed in his palace. In the floods occasioned by it on the river Severn and river Thames and coast of Holland [now the Netherlands], 8000 persons lost their lives. In one place 15,000 sheep were drowned. It was called the Great Storm, and probably the most terrible that ever occurred in England. In Kent, 1107 houses and barns were destroyed, 500 grand trees in Penshurst destroyed, and 920 wherries, ships, boats, and barges sunk. Tiles rose from 50s. to £10. Defoe says, “Horror and confusion seized upon all, no pen can describe it, no tongue can express it, no thought conceive it, unless some of those who were in the extremity of it.” 212

On 26 November 1703, a destructive storm struck the coast of England, in which thirteen sail of British men-of-war were lost, and fifteen hundred and nineteen officers and seamen perished. A great many other vessels, with their crews, were also lost and an immense amount of other damage was sustained.1

In England on 26 November 1703, there was a great hurricane. “All the ships in the river, from London Bridge to Limehouse, with the exception of four only, were broken from their moorings and thrown on shore. Upwards of four hundred wherries were entirely lost, more than sixty barges were driven foul of London Bridge, and as many more were either sunk or staved above bridge. The loss of life was also very considerable.” 29

On 26 & 27 November in England, one of the most terrible storms on record; known as the “Great Storm” occurred. The devastation on land was immense, while on the coasts and in the harbors the loss of shipping was terrible. The loss of life was very large, and sheep and cattle were drowned by thousands from the floods occasioned, especially in the Severn and Thames valleys. The loss of property in London was estimated at 1,000,000l. Eddystone lighthouse was destroyed and its constructor (Winstanley) in it. On the coast of Holland [now the Netherlands] great damage was done.47, 57

On 26 November 1703, a great hurricane struck England. Several thousand persons were drowned in floods along the River Thames, in London. The hurricane destroyed property in London valued at $10,000,000. [In present currency, that would be equivalent to $272 million in damages based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation rates.] This tempest was known as the “Great Storm”.197

The most terrible storm that had ever been known in England; attended with flashes of lightning occurred on November 27. The storm unroofed many houses and churches, blew down several chimneys and the spires of many steeples, tore whole groves of trees up by the roots, and the leads of some churches were rolled up like scrolls of parchment, and several vessels, boats, and barges were sunk in the River Thames – but the Navy suffered the greatest damage, being just returned from the Mediterranean, one 2nd rate, four 3rd rates, four 4th rates, and many other of less force, were cast away upon the coast of England, and over 1,500 seamen lost, besides those that were cast away in the merchants’ service – in London only, the damage was estimated at a million.40, 41, 43, 56

During the night of November 26, commenced the most dreadful tempest ever known in England, attended with vivid flashes of lightning. Houses were unroofed; steeples of churches blown down; while the largest trees were torn up by the roots. Several vessels were sunk in the Thames, and the royal navy in particular was seriously injured, and 1,500 seamen perished, besides those cast away in mercantile vessels. The loss sustained by London alone was computed at a million sterling, while Bristol lost 200,000l. Among the persons drowned was Admiral Beaumont.55

On 26-27 November 1703, the “Great Storm,” was one of the most terrible that ever raged in England. The devastation on land was immense; and in the harbors and on the coasts the loss in shipping and in lives was still greater. The loss sustained in London alone was calculated at 2,000,000l. Sterling. The number of persons drowned in the floods of the Severn and Thames rivers in England, and lost on the coast of Holland [now the Netherlands], and in ships blown from their anchors and never heard of afterwards, is thought to have been 8,000. Twelve men-of-war, with more than 1,800 men on board, were lost within sight of their own shore. Trees were torn up by the roots; 17,000 of them in Kent, England alone. The Eddystone lighthouse was destroyed, and in it the ingenious contriver of it, Winstanley, and the persons who were with him. [The Eddystone lighthouse is located on the Edystone reef, 14 miles off Plymouth.] The Bishop of Bath and Wells and his lady were killed in bed in their palace in Somersetshire, England. Multitudes of cattle were also lost: in one level 15,000 sheep were drowned.90

Kinder, the Bishop of Bath, and his lady were killed in a great storm in England in 1703 from falling chimneys.40

In 1703, a dreadful tempest struck England.128

On the night of 26/27 November 1703, a tempest of extreme violence struck England. It was preceded by a very wet season lasting about 6 months. “About 10 o’clock [in the evening] the barometers informed us that the night would be very tempestuous – the mercury sunk lower than ever I had observed it on any occasion.” Because of the severity of the storm, between 1 and 2 o’clock in the morning, most people lying in their beds, expected the fall of their houses. The bricks, tiles, and stones, from the tops of the houses, flew with such force, and so thick in the streets, that no one thought fit to venture out, though

their houses were near demolished within. The fury of the wind was greater than was ever known; the noise had also something in it more formidable; it sounded aloft, and roared not very much unlike remote thunder. From 2 o’clock the storm continued and increased to 5 o’clock. Between 5:30 and 6 o’clock, the storm reached its peak. During this time several ships, that rode it out until now, gave up all – for no anchor could hold. Even ships in the River Thames were all blown away from their mooring, and from Execution-dock to Limehouse hole, there were but four ships that rode it out. The rest were all driven down into the Bight, as the sailors called it, from Bell wharf to Limehouse, where they were huddled together and drove on shore, heads and sterns, one upon another, in such a manner as any one would have thought it had been impossible. The storm continued for seven days but to a lesser degree. The storm spread over a great part of northern Europe. Over most parts of south Britain and Wales, the tallest and stoutest timber trees were uprooted or snapped in the middle. It was estimated that 25 parks in several counties each lost a thousand trees and those of New Forest, Hants above four thousand. Whole sheets of lead were blown away from the roofs of strong buildings. Seven steeples, over four hundred windmills and eight hundred dwelling houses were blown down in addition to barns, out-houses and a great number of orchards. About 120 persons lost their lives on land. At least eight thousand seamen perished. The estuary of the Severn suffered much by the breaking in of the sea. The country for a great extent was inundated, the vessels driven upon the pastureland, and many thousand sheep and cattle were drowned. The spray of the sea was carried far inland in such quantities, as to form little concretions or knobs of salt on the hedges; and 25 miles from the sea, in Kent, made the pasture so salty, that the cattle for some time would not eat it. The total damage was estimated to exceed that of the Great Fire of London.175

A vessel laden with tin, being left in a small port of Helford near Falmouth, England, with only a man and two boys on board, drove from her four anchors at midnight [26/27 November 1703], and went to sea. This vessel made such speed from the wind, almost without a sail, that by 8 o’clock in the morning, by the presence of mind of one of the boys, she was put into a narrow creek in the Isle of Wight, and the crew and cargo saved. This run may give us some conception of the velocity of the wind. For if we consider that the course of the vessel, even by the winds, could not have been direct, but in a large curve outwards from the coast; the rate at which she went exceeded 30 miles per hour on average. As a result the winds from this hurricane must have been three or four times greater.175

On 26 November 1703, a dreadful hurricane struck Great Britain. The great storm, set in at ten at night, and raged violently until seven the next morning. It extended its destruction to every part of the kingdom. In the capital [London], upwards of two thousand stacks of chimneys were blown down. The lead on the tops of several churches was rolled up like skins of parchment. Many houses were leveled with the ground, and by the fall of the ruins, 21 persons were killed, and more than 200 wounded. The ships in the River Thames broke from their moorings: four hundred wherries [a type of boat that was traditionally used for carrying cargo or passengers on rivers and canals in England] were lost, and many barges sunk, with a great loss of lives. At sea, the destruction was still greater: twelve ships of war, with upwards of eighteen hundred men onboard, were totally lost, together with many merchantmen.191

On 26 November 1703, a Great Storm of wind devastated England. The storm lasted from noon on Wednesday 24 November to noon on Wednesday 1 December with the storm reaching the intensity of a perfect hurricane on 26 November [Julian Calendar].209
— The Paris Gazetteer stated there were 30,000 seamen lost in several ports of England and 300 sail of ships [sailing ships] were destroyed in this great storm. [I have seen several estimates of the damage caused by this storm on the shipping and they vary significantly from one another. And the final count will never be known. I can understand the difficulties of coming up with an exact count of the number of seamen lost and the number of sailing ships destroyed in this great disaster. On the River Thames near London, almost 700 ships were smashed together in one great heap. In many cases these ships were manned by only a skeleton crew with most seaman on shore leave. Had they been fully manned, the casualties would be astronomical. Many of the ships that took shelter along the coast, were terribly

528 More to come …