Supervolcanos

Figure 1 - Connection of VEI with the emission volume into the atmosphere.

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In order to assess the influence of volcanic eruptions upon the atmosphere, the volcanic explosivity index is used (VEI). This index defines the eruption force of the volcano on the assumption of volume of the erupted products (tephra) and the height of ash column.

Range of changes: from zero – for the eruptions, with the emission volume of less than 10 thousand m³ (104 m³), to eight – for the eruptions, emitting into the atmosphere more than 1,000 cubic kilometers (1,012 cubic meters) of ash and ash column of more than 25 km in height.

The eruptions with VEI magnitude of 6 and more can cause the effect of volcanic winter – marked fall in temperature on a planetary scale.

 

Figure 1 – Connection of VEI with the emission volume into the atmosphere.

 

Table 1 – Activity of supervolcanoes.

Name VEI Continent Country Location Last eruption Last activity Status
High Island 8 Asia China Hong Kong ~140 million years ago No data
Island Park Caldera 8 North-America USA State of Idaho 2.1 million years ago November 19 2015 08:56 PM
La Garita Caldera 8 North-America USA State of Colorado ~27.8 million years ago No data
Lake Taupo 8 Australia – New-Zealand New Zealand North Island ~26,500 years ago November 30 2015 06:43 AM
Lake Toba 8 Indonesian Archipelago Indonesia Northern Sumatra ~74,000 years ago October 21 2015 09:04 PM
Whakamaru 8 Australia – New-Zealand New Zealand North Island ~254,000 years ago November 29 2015 01:05 PM
Yellowstone Caldera 8 North-America USA State of Wyoming 640,000 years ago November 24 2015 11:06 PM
Aira Caldera 7 Asia Japan Island of Kyushu ~22,000 years ago October 02 2015 07:09 PM
Baekdu Mountain 7 Asia China The border North Korea and China ~969 CE No data
Campi Flegrei 7 Europe Italy Naples ~39,280 years ago November 18 2015 10:52 AM
Kikai Caldera 7 Asia Japan Osumi Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture ~6,300 years ago August 17 2015 11:40 AM
Laacher See 7 Europe Germany Rhineland-Palatinate ~12,900 years ago October 21 2015 11:02 AM
Long Valley Caldera 7 North-America USA State of California ~760,000 years ago November 30 2015 08:56 AM
Mount Aso 7 Asia Japan Island of Kyushu, Kumamoto Prefecture ~80,000 years ago October 02 2015 07:09 PM
Mount Tambora 7 Indonesian Archipelago Indonesia Sumbawa Island 1815 November 20 2015 04:08 PM
Reporoa Caldera 7 Australia – New-Zealand New Zealand Taupo Volcanic Zone 230,000 years ago November 29 2015 01:05 PM
Santorini Volcano 7 Europe Greece Island of Thera 1927 November 24 2015 07:47 AM

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